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Johnson, the highest-profile leader tocontract the virus characterised by high fevers and coughing, voiced confidencethat Britain would beat the pandemic in a candid video message after he wasdischarged from a state-run National Health Service hospital. “We will defeat this coronavirus and defeat it together,” Boris Johnson vowed, thanking medics he said saved his life “no question.” LONDON – Virus-stricken British PrimeMinister Boris Johnson thanked medics for saving his life after leavinghospital on Easter Sunday, as hundreds of millions of Christians observed theholiday under lockdown due to the coronavirus pandemic. “I hope they won’t mind if Imention in particular two nurses who stood by my bedside for 48 hours whenthings could have gone either way,” said 55-year-old Johnson, who wasadmitted on April 5 to a London hospital where he spent three days in intensivecare. (AFP)
Share on: WhatsApp Uganda’s defender Denis Iguma (R) in action when Uganda beat Botswana in the AFCON QUALIFIERS. Uganda also still in running in World Cup qualifiers. AFP PHOTOSeedingPot 1: Algeria, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Senegal, EgyptPot 2: Tunisia, Cape Verde, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea, CameroonPot 3: Congo Brazzaville, Nigeria, Morocco, Mali, South AfricaPot 4: Uganda, Burkina Faso, Zambia, Gabon, Libya Johannesburg, South Africa | AFP |FIFA have altered the seeding for the 2018 World Cup Africa group draw in Cairo Friday with Egypt, Guinea and Cameroon promoted and Tunisia, Nigeria and Mali demoted.Egypt are now among the top seeds and Guinea and Cameroon are second seeds ahead of a draw that will split 20 nations into five groups with the winners qualifying for the finals in Russia.Tunisia drop from first to second seeds and Nigeria and Mali from second to third seeds for the most eagerly anticipated off-field event in African football this year. (LIVE FEED from draw at 6pm -bottom of page)FIFA have not explained why they changed the seedings.Algeria, Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast and Nigeria are seeking third consecutive World Cup appearances.Group qualifying starts this October, continues in November and there will be four rounds between August and November 2017.Eighteen of the nations in the draw are among the top 20 in the rankings with Gabon and Libya the exceptions.
Share on: WhatsApp Kirinya–Jinja SS vs Onduparaka, KakinduPolice vs Soana, KavumbaURA vs Lweza, LugaziMike Mutebi’s KCCA will be desperate to prove events in Arua, where they fell to Onduparaka, were just a blip in their erstwhile perfect start to the campaign. They welcome a Moses Basena-coached Saints equally anxious for points after picking only four from a possible 12. Both teams come into this fixture on the back of defeats but KCCA’s deeper and more resourceful squad hardly gives the Saints points of encouragement.If SC Villa’s shyness in front of goal has been hidden from the wider public eye, there will not be a hiding on Tuesday in the live game of the day. Coach Deo Sserwadda’s men have so far had a penalty saved and scored only three goals in four games.Vipers travel to Bugembe knowing they must stick in there amongst the top places if they are to wrest back the title from KCCA. Also the country’s representative in the Caf Confederations Cup, coach Abdallah Mubiru knows very well the importance of raking up points early before the continental games come up early next yearFULL STORY By UPLTuesday UPL FIXTURESSC Villa vs ProlineNamboole (4 pm) live on Azam TV4.30pmKCCA vs The Saints, LugogoBright Stars vs Sadolin, MatuggaExpress vs Bul, WankulukukuJMC Hippos vs Vipers, Bugembe
Tags: Chris Wood, England teams 20 May 2020 Fit for purpose – Chris Wood offers S&C tips to squads Chris Wood has revealed the secrets of his strength and conditioning regime to up-and-coming England players as part of an ongoing series of tutorials with Tour stars.The former England Golf graduate and three-time winner on the European Tour provided a fascinating insight into his fitness work, management of injuries and importance of nutrition during the latest in a series of webinars.During lockdown, Wood didn’t let the closure of his local gym in Bristol interrupt his rhythm.Instead, the 32-year-old simply manufactured his own weights by using his brother-in-law’s drill to fix handles to 35 kilo logs!Wood’s Q&A session explored how he copes with the stresses of tour life and managing a back injury which has niggled him since his teenage amateur days.A bulging disc on his left side is, quite literally, a pain but with careful management is something Wood can work around.The Q&A session was led by England Golf’s Strength and Conditioning Coach Dan Coughlan and was something Wood was happy to sign up for because of the affection he still feels towards the England Golf set-up.“The over-riding memory I have from my England career was the experiences I enjoyed travelling the world playing golf – and that’s why I’m happy to help out with sessions such as this one,” admitted the 2007 England Golf Order of Merit winner.“I remember going to Australia with four or five other lads. We played an Aussie team and played the Aussie Amateur and a couple of other top events.“I had three weeks in Australia playing competitive golf with good lads – just brilliant.“I remember we were jet-lagged on arrival at a hotel right on a golf course, but we were out in the dark having chipping competitions on the greens – just constant competition and so much fun.“I won the Russian Amateur after being sent away as part of an England squad and earned a slot in the Russian Open on the European Tour – an experience I wouldn’t have otherwise had without being part of an England set up.“Our team spirit back then was amazing.“We always played a game of ‘killer’ on the putting green.“You’re in your blazer ready for a presentation after a day’s play, but the coach, Dave Ridley, lined up 10 of us to hole four-foot putts.“It was a case of miss and you’re out. There was always an edge, but it was just so much fun and these England trips made you love the game even more.”Wood is eager to get back into competition once it is safe for the European Tour to resume, but has not wasted his time off.Ideas on practice, gym work, recovery and the importance of sleep were all topics covered as current squad players once again lapped up the information from a player who was England’s top amateur two years in a row from 2007 and worked his way up to becoming a winner on Tour and a Ryder Cup player.One of Wood’s highlights as an amateur was winning the silver medal at the 2008 Open at Royal Birkdale (pictured below) where he finished the week in a tie for fifth behind eventual winner Padraig Harrington.On that experience, Wood added: “I did a Q&A with my golf club last week and was asked to name my three most nervous moments on a course – that opening tee shot at Birkdale is one of them!“On Sunday I was off in a later group and I was playing with Ian Poulter who I’d never met.“It was an intimidating stage, yet I felt that it was what I wanted to do.“I hold that achievement of winning the silver medal for top amateur as high as anything I’ve done in the game.“The following day I had interviews at my local club and the pro came out to see the medal. He congratulated me, was shaking and dropped the medal. I only had it for less than a day and it was chipped!”Wood may be a regular on Tour, but he remains in touch with his local county scene and has an eye on youngsters coming through the ranks with Gloucestershire.He added: “I’m still close with Mark Powell – he’s been junior organiser for 20 years and he’s so passionate about junior golf in this region.“Whatever Mark asks he will always get a positive answer from me. I still play in their December junior get-together.“Gloucestershire was as big for me in my career as England and I will always support the county game.”Wood has followed Matt Wallace, Matt Fitzpatrick, Tommy Fleetwood, Bronte Law, Meg MacLaren and Danny Willett in hosting sessions for the England squad as they look to continue their golfing education.
Top seed Adamson stakes its unbeaten slate as it faces University of the Philippines while No. 2 University of Santo Tomas tangles with Far Eastern U to kick off the Premier Volleyball League Season 2 Collegiate Conference semifinals on Wednesday at Filoil Flying V Centre in San Juan.The Lady Falcons held off the Lady Maroons, 25-22, 19-25, 25-23, 26-24, the last time they played last Aug. 12 but the Lady Falcons remain wary of their rivals in their 2 p.m. clash at the start of their best-of-three series.ADVERTISEMENT Gov’t in no rush to rescue animals in Taal Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Sor Rungvisai not taking unheralded Diaz lightly Peza offers relief to ecozone firms DepEd’s Taal challenge: 30K students displaced Judy Ann’s 1st project for 2020 is giving her a ‘stomachache’ Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew Will you be the first P16 Billion Powerball jackpot winner from the Philippines? Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Palace OKs total deployment ban on Kuwait OFWs MOST READ View comments ‘High crimes and misdemeanors’: Trump impeachment trial begins Gretchen Barretto’s daughter Dominique graduates magna cum laude from California college Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. LATEST STORIES “I know they (UP) are going to come out strong. I do feel the best game they ever played in the conference was against us. They gave us their best game,” said Adamson coach Air Padda.The Tigresses are also looking to duplicate their thrilling 25-15, 25-27, 25-18, 22-25, 15-11 escape over third-ranked Lady Tamaraws in Cagayan de Oro City last Saturday when they start their showdown at 4 p.m.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSJapeth Aguilar wins 1st PBA Finals MVP award for GinebraSPORTSTim Cone still willing to coach Gilas but admits decision won’t be ‘simple yes or no’The Lady Maroons, meanwhile, hope to ride the momentum of their recent victory over San Beda.“Once bitten, twice shy,” said UP coach Godfrey Okumu on their first meeting with Adamson. “We played them before. It was a seesaw game even if we lost against them.”
Rory Gallagher has given debuts to Marc Anthony McGinley and Kevin McBrearty during their victory over Sligo IT.Former UCD goalkeeper Marc Anthony McGinley made his Donegal bow in a challenge match victory over Sligo IT. McGinley played for five seasons for UCD in both the Premier and First Divisions of the League of Ireland.However, after completing his studies McGinley decided to leave UCD and signed for Finn Harps. He didn’t feature for Finn Harps with Conor Winn the No.1 choice for Ollie Horgan so McGinley focused his attentions on Gaelic football with his club St Michael’s.McGinley was superb for St Michael’s in their Donegal SFC campaign which ended when they were narrowly defeated by St Eunan’s in the semi-final.That form prompted new Donegal manager Rory Gallagher to invite McGinley to join a host of other clubs players on a four-week trial period in his attempt to unearth fresh talent.McGinley didn’t feature in the Dr McKenna Cup but he played the entire match in their victory over Sligo IT earlier this week. McGinley is expected to stay part of the squad despite the likelihood he’ll be behind both Paul Durcan and Michael Boyle in the fight for the No.1 jersey.Another player who made his Donegal debut was Four Masters clubman Kevin McBrearty.Mark McHugh and Ryan McHugh both featured for Sligo IT as they try and step-up their preparations for the Sigerson Cup which starts next month. MARC ANTHONY MCGINLEY MAKES DONEGAL DEBUT IN VICTORY OVER SLIGO IT was last modified: January 22nd, 2015 by Mark ForkerShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:donegalfinn harpsGAAMarc Anthony McGinleynewsRory Gallaghersligo itSportSt MichaelsUCD
CLICK HERE if you are having a problem viewing the photos on a mobile deviceCHARLOTTE, N.C. – Even as he fights through layers of rust and imposing offenses, DeMarcus Cousins has proven one thing. He still remains one of the NBA’s best centers.In the Warriors’ 121-110 victory over the Charlotte Hornets on Monday, Cousins had season-highs in points (24) and playing time (31 minutes) while shooting 9-of-15 from the field. It marked a breakthrough after Cousins both had sluggish performances …
SAN JOSE — Robert Bortuzzo’s second period goal for the St. Louis Blues in Game 2 of the Western Conference Final against the Sharks was the first of his career in an NHL playoff game. His last postseason goal at any level came during the 2007 Ontario Hockey League playoffs with the Kitchener Rangers.His coach at the time? The Sharks’ Pete DeBoer.Bortuzzo played two seasons under DeBoer and assistant coach Steve Spott from 2006-2008 before DeBoer got his first NHL job with the Florida …
An overview of the main currents in South African literature, from Olive Schreiner’s depiction of life on isolated Karoo farms to more recent work that tackles the aftermath of apartheid and pushes into the post-apartheid future.South Africa has a rich and diverse literary history. (Image: Okay Africa)Brand South Africa reporterSouth Africa has a rich and diverse literary history, with realism, until relatively recently, dominating works of fiction.Fiction has been written in all of South Africa’s 11 official languages – with a large body of work in Afrikaans and English. This overview focuses primarily on English fiction, though it also touches on major poetic developments.Sections in this article:The colonial adventureTruly South African voices Emergence of black writing Between the wars The 1940sThe Drum decade: urban black life Gordimer: liberalism to radicalismFigures of the 1960s The Soweto poetsThe emergency years After apartheidThe colonial adventure The first fictional works to emerge from South Africa were produced by colonial writers whose attitude to indigenous South Africans was, at best, ambivalent, if not outright hostile. This is especially true of the writers of adventure-type stories, in which colonial heroes are romanticised and the role of black South Africans was reduced to that of enemy or servant.One such writer, Rider Haggard, wrote many mythical and adventure stories, beginning in the early 1880s. His most famous book is King Solomon’s Mines (1886), a bestseller in its day (and filmed several times up to the 1980s). Like subsequent novels such as Allan Quartermain and She (both 1887), its central character is the hunter Allan Quartermain, Haggard’s ideal of the colonial gentleman.Although Haggard wrote many other adventures and fantasies, it is his highly coloured African works that are still read today.Back to topTruly South African voices Olive Schreiner’s novel, The Story of an African Farm (1883) is generally considered to be the founding text of South African literature. Schreiner was born on a mission station and worked as a governess on isolated Karoo farms, an experience that informed the novel.The novel draws on the post-romantic sensibility of Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights, and is still a key text in the formation of a truly South African voice. However, it has been criticised for its silence with regard to the black African presence in South Africa. Schreiner’s other work includes a critique of Cecil John Rhodes’s brutal form of colonialism, Trooper Peter Halkett of Mashonaland (1897), and the polemical Women and Labour (1911).Douglas Blackburn, a maverick British journalist who came to South Africa when the Transvaal was still a Boer republic, had something in common with Schreiner. In several newspapers, he denounced British colonial attitudes as well as satirising Boer corruption. He wrote two novels set in this world, Prinsloo of Prinsloosdorp (1899) and A Burgher Quixote (1903), capturing with a great deal of sly humour the personality and situation of the Boer at the time. His later novel Leaven (1908) is a moving denunciation of “blackbirding” (the recruitment of people through trickery and kidnappings to work on farms) and other iniquitous labour practices, and Love Muti (1915) attacks British colonial attitudes.Emergence of black writing Literature by black South Africans emerged in the 20 th century. The first generation of mission-educated African writers sought to restore dignity to Africans by invoking and reconstructing a heroic African past.The first novel by a black South African was Mhudi (completed in 1920 but only published in 1930), by Solomon (Sol) Thekiso Plaatje. This epic story follows the trajectory of the Tswana people during and after their military encounter with the Zulus under Shaka, the Zulu conqueror of the 19th century, and encompasses their earliest encounters with the white people moving into the interior.Viewed as the founding father of black literature in South Africa, Plaatje was also the first secretary general of the then South African Native National Congress (now the African National Congress) at its foundation in 1912. His Native Life in South Africa (1916) was a seminal text in the study of land dispossession in South Africa. He also wrote a diary of the siege of Mafeking during the Boer War, and translated Shakespeare into seTswana language.While Plaatje’s Mhudi related the history of the Tswana people in South African literature, Thomas Mofolo’s Chaka reinvents the legendary Zulu king, Shaka. Mofolo portrays him as a heroic but tragic figure, a monarch to rival Shakespeare’s Macbeth. Mofolo, however, also invests Shaka with a complex personality, in which good and evil are at war – in contrast to white colonial historians who made him a simplistic monster of tribal savagery. Completed in 1910, the novel was published in 1925 and the first English translation came out in 1930.Between the wars Perhaps the dominant figure of South African literature in the period between the two world wars was Sarah Gertrude Millin, whose reputation has faded considerably since her death. This can be predicated on her politics: she was initially a devout supporter of Jan Smuts’ government, but later became something of an apologist for apartheid.Her views on the “tragedy” of racial miscegenation were put forward in God’s Stepchildren (1924). Seen in terms of racial hierarchies, with whites at the top and blacks at the bottom, Millin’s views represented those held widely at the time.Her later novels continued to deal with the predicament of coloured (mixed-race) people in South Africa, or attempted to describe the world of indigenous peoples.Back to topThe 1940s The 1940s saw the beginnings of a flowering of literature by black South Africans such as HIE Dhlomo whose work preached a “return to the source” – the wisdom of finding traditional ways of dealing with modern problems. His work includes several plays and the long poem The Valley of a Thousand Hills (1941). Poets such as BW Vilakazi, who wrote in Zulu, gave new literary life to their indigenous languages.Peter Abrahams, a writer of mixed race descent, published his first novel Mine Boy in 1946, the same year a large miners’ strike was violently suppressed by Smuts’ government. Mine Boy depicts life in black urban areas of the time, and dramatises the problems of rural people in a depressed urban environment – a theme that was referred to as the “Jim comes to Jo’burg” phenomenon in South African literature.Later works by Abrahams (who left South Africa and settled in Britain before finally moving to Jamaica) include The Path of Thunder (1948), which deals with interracial love; Return to Goli (1953), about his journey back to report on life in Johannesburg; and his autobiography Tell Freedom (1954).Another South African writer who emerged in the 1940s, Herman Charles Bosman, is best known for his tales, a portrait of Afrikaner storytelling skills and social attitudes. The first collection of stories was published in Mafeking Road in 1947. Among the most famous are Unto Dust and In the Withaak’s Shade. Bosman, who was once jailed for the mysterious murder of his half-brother, also wrote poetry, novels, and much journalism, often satirical. One of his best works, Cold Stone Jug (1949), is a semi-fictionalised account of his time in jail. All his books have been reissued in new 2001 editions to coincide with the 50th anniversary of his death.Bosman had satirised social attitudes in South Africa, but it was the work of a former white schoolteacher, Alan Paton, that brought the world’s attention to the situation of black people in South Africa. Cry, The Beloved Country (1948) is possibly the most famous novel to have come out of South Africa. When it was first published, it was an international bestseller, launching Paton, to worldwide fame. The novel put South Africa on the map of international politics by making visible to Western audiences the effects of racial prejudice and the oppression of black people. The novel was turned into a movie in 1995.It is the story of a black priest who travels to Johannesburg in search of his son, who had fallen victim to the corrupting influence of the city. The novel explores themes of corruption and forgiveness, putting forward a liberal-humanist view of South Africa’s racial politics – as well as Paton’s deeply felt Christianity. The novel has a lovely poetic language, with extensive use of Biblical cadences, though Paton has also been criticised for a possibly condescending portrayal of black people.Back to topThe Drum decade: urban black life The 1950s also saw a new generation of black writers talking about the conditions of their lives in their own voices – voices with a distinctive stamp and style. The popular Drum magazine in the 1950s was their forum, and encouraged their emergence. It depicted a vibrant urban black culture for the first time – a world of jazz, shebeens (illegal drinking dens), and flamboyant gangsters (tsotsis).These Drum writers, whose style will be later described by renowned writer Es’kia Mphahlele as “racy, agitated, impressionistic, it quivered with a nervous energy, a caustic wit”, depicted urban deprivation, and also the resilience of people who survived “without visible means of subsistence”. They recorded satirical stories ridiculing the discriminatory and repressive policies of the state, while others provided harrowing details of the effect of apartheid legislation on people’s lives.Their work ranged from the investigative journalism of Henry Nxumalo to the witty social commentary of Todd Matshikiza; others such as Nat Nakasa, Can Themba and Mphahlele moved toward embodying their visions of black South African life in poetry or fiction.Later, Nakasa edited a literary journal, The Classic, that published work such as Themba’s story “The Suit” (1963), now regarded as a classic of South African literature. Themba was banned by the apartheid state and died in 1968 in exile, but others such as Mphahlele pursued their literary careers.Lewis Nkosi became a noted literary critic in Europe and the United States. Other notable writers connected in some way to Drum include William Bloke Modisane, Arthur Maimane, Dyke Sentso, James Matthews, Peter Clarke, Richard Rive, Jordan Ngubane, Alex La Guma and Casey Motsisi. Modisane wrote the autobiography Blame Me on History (1963), Matthews has written much poetry and a novel, and Rive wrote Buckingham Palace, District Six (1986), about life in that coloured Cape Town area, and two novels about South African states of emergency, decades apart, Emergency (1964) and Emergency Continued (1989).The Drum Decade , edited by Michael Chapman, and A Good Looking Corpse , by Mike Nicol, anthologise and comment on key works of this era.Professor E’skia Mphahlele’s autobiographical Down Second Avenue (1959) is a landmark in the development of South African fiction. Set in a village and a township near Pretoria, the text records in evocative language the resilience of various female characters in Mphahlele’s life, women who defied poverty and urban squalor to bring him up. At the same time, they are presented with complexity and depth – his grandmother, for one, is a rather tyrannical figure.Mphahlele went on to write critiques The African Image (1962), short stories Man Must Live (1946), In Corner B (1967), as well as further novels, including The Wanderers (1971), in some ways an extension of the autobiographical form of Down Second Avenue . He also wrote poetry and autobiography. Taken as a whole, Mphahlele’s oeuvre represents one of the most important views of the life experience and developing views of a politically aware South African.In 2007, actor and theatre director James Ngcobo reworked Mphahlele’s poignant and emotional story The Suitcase into a highly successful play.Back to topGordimer: liberalism to radicalism At the same time as the Drum generation was creating the first urban black voice, one of South Africa’s most important white writers was beginning her long, distinguished career. Nadine Gordimer published her first short stories in the early 1950s and in 1991 she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. Between those two dates, her many novels and short stories articulated key issues for white South Africans sympathetic to the plight of disenfranchised blacks, as well as providing for the outside world a devastating picture of what it was like to live under apartheid.In her first published novel The Lying Days (1953), Gordimer charts the growing political awareness of a young white woman, Helen, towards small-town life and South African racial divisionHer second novel, A World of Strangers (1958), shows the first fruitful but often frightening encounters between white and black people in the heady days of Sophiatown. By the time of The Late Bourgeois World (1966), Gordimer is dealing directly with the effects of the black liberation movement on white South Africans, showing the divided soul of the white liberal in a morally ambivalent situation. The Conservationist (1974) pits Afrikaner land hunger against the indigenous population in an often phantasmagoric narrative. Burger’s Daughter (1979) depicts the involvement of radical white activists in the liberation struggle. July’s People (1981), perhaps Gordimer’s most powerful novel, projects into the future the final collapse of white supremacy and what that might mean for white and black people on an intimate level. Her other works (and her short stories are regarded as among her finest work) deal with issues such as love across the colour line and, more recently, the emergence of South Africa into a democracy after the release of Nelson Mandela in 1990 – a society still dealing with a myriad contradictions.Back to topFigures of the 1960s In the early 1960s, the State of Emergency used by the apartheid state to crack down on dissidents and the banning of political organisations sent many black writers into exile. Among them was Alex la Guma, a Marxist and ANC leader who saw the purpose of his work as the exposure of the dreadful conditions of South Africa’s oppressed.His novella A Walk in the Night (1962) shows the life of crime to which slum inhabitants are driven, and And a Threefold Cord (1967) contrasts the existence of a black worker in a white home with her employers’ affluent life. The later novel, In the Fog of the Season’s End (1972), possibly his best, shows the developing consciousness of a man dedicated to the underground struggle for freedom. As a “listed person”, little of La Guma’s work was available in South Africa until 1990, when the liberation movements were unbanned.At the same time, in the 1960s, the Afrikaans literary scene had a rush of new blood, as literary writers such as Jan Rabie, Etienne Leroux, Breyten Breytenbach and Andre Brink emerged. Publishing first in Afrikaans, these writers were increasingly politicised by the situation in South Africa and their contrasting experiences overseas.Breytenbach, who began as one of the most linguistically radical new poets in Afrikaans, left South Africa for France in 1960, where he became a vocal critic of the apartheid state. Later, in the 1970s, he returned to South Africa and was arrested and jailed for work he was doing for the liberation movement. From this experience came his extraordinary prison memoir, True Confessions of an Albino Terrorist (1996). His prison poetry was published in English in Judas Eye (1988). Breytenbach’s return visits to South Africa are recorded, mixing reportage and imaginative commentary, in A Season in Paradise (1976) and Return to Paradise (1993). His essays have been published in The Memory of Birds in Times of Revolution (1996). Even under an ANC government as he was under a Nationalist one, Breytenbach remains caustic about politics and power.Andre Brink stayed in South Africa to see his novels become the first Afrikaans works banned by the government. Written in English as well as Afrikaans, his novels have become as important a part of South African English-language literature as they are in Afrikaans. Having published several novels in Afrikaans during the 1960s, it was his novel Looking on Darkness (1973) that was first banned.His immensely powerful novel A Dry White Season (1982), focused on the death in detention of a black activist, and caused great irritation to the apartheid state, while conscientising many white South Africans. It was also banned, then unbanned. Later novels by this prolific novelist include An Act of Terror (1991), dealing with an Afrikaner dissident turned “terrorist”, and On the Contrary (1993), a playful reworking of South Africa’s colonial history.During this period, Bessie Head emerged as a leading South African woman writer. Of mixed blood, and with a traumatic family history, Head left South Africa to avoid its racial policies and lived in Botswana, where she felt more at ease. Her novels show a marked sympathy with ordinary peasant women; her heroines are poor but strong-willed, women who have to face up to various forms of prejudice.Her first novel was When Rain Clouds Gather (1968), followed by Maru (1971), The Collector of Treasures (1977), and A Question of Power (1973). The Collector of Treasures is her most autobiographical work, dealing with the traumas of her own illegitimate mixed-race birth, her mother’s suicide and her own nervous breakdown.Another writer to make his name in the 1960s was Wilbur Smith, South Africa’s a worldwide best-selling author. In many ways he is the heir to the tradition of Rider Haggard – some would say politically as well.His earliest novels are probably his best: Where the Lion Feeds (1964) and The Sound of Thunder (1966) are set in the era of the foundation of gold-mining in South Africa. Others go as far afield as the state of Israel, Ethiopia during the Italian invasion, piracy in the age of sail, or, more recently, investigate the pharaonic times of Ancient Egypt. His latest novel, The Quest (2007), is New York Times’s best seller as well as best seller in several European countries.The 1960s also saw the emergence of a new generation of white South African poets, among them Douglas Livingstone, Sidney Clouts, Ruth Miller, Lionel Abrahams and Stephen Gray. Their work ranges from powerful apprehensions of natural life (Livingstone) to more interior, meditative considerations (Abrahams), and a sardonic socio-political sensibility (Gray).Gray has also written novels, plays and much criticism. Abrahams has written two semi-autobiographical novels, The Celibacy of Felix Greenspan (1977) and The White Life of Felix Greenspan (2002).Back to topThe Soweto poets The 1970s are widely regarded as a defining period for the development of political consciousness among black South Africans. With the rise of the Black Consciousness (BC) movement, of which the martyred Bantu Steve Biko was a leading figure, and the school children’s revolt of 1976, literature became a vehicle to promote the political ideals of anti-apartheid popular movements. The genres of drama and poetry were utilised for their immediacy of impact.The most notable writers from this period are Mongane (Wally) Serote, Sipho Sepamla, Oswald Joseph Mbuyiseni Mtshali, Christopher van Wyk, Mafika Gwala and Don Mattera. Couched in graphic language designed to arouse the emotions of listeners, their poems were often performed at political rallies.While Mtshali’s poems, first published in 1971 in The Sound of a Cowhide Drum , asked for generalised sympathy for the plight of poor black people, and Sepamla was at first considered a “contemplative” poet, the tone soon changed. By the time of The Soweto I Love (1977), Sepamla’s poetic persona is fully identified with the oppressed. Sepamla also wrote a novel of this turbulent time, A Ride on the Whirlwind (1981). Sepamla, apart from being a leading arts teacher, has written several other novels, and his Selected Poems were published in 1984.Serote’s early poems, in volumes such as Yakhal’inkomo (1972) and Tsetlo (1974), deal with the life and attitudes of a politically aware black person, looking at his society and its discontentment. In later volumes, Serote begins to develop an epic, incantatory voice, with the long poems of Behold Mama, Flowers (1978) and Come and Hope with Me (1994), winner of the Noma Award for Publishing in Africa.Serote (who became an ANC leader) is also the author of the novel To Every Birth Its Blood (1981), a remarkable account of political activity in the 1970s. Serote’s later novel, Gods of our Time (1999), reconstructs civil and military campaigns which led to the demise of apartheid.Other interesting fiction to deal with the Soweto revolt and subsequent political activity include Miriam Tlali’s Amandla (1980) and Mbulelo Mzamane’s The Children of Soweto (1982). Don Mattera has written an account of life in Sophiatown, and its destruction, Memory is the Weapon (1987).The emergency years A mass democratic movement, based on the ideals of the Freedom Charter, arose within the country in the 1980s and the state responded with successive states of emergency that brought white troops to the townships.In the face of this, poets such as the orator Mzwakhe Mbuli reached vast audiences, while novelists such as Menan du Plessis and Mandla Langa engaged with the business of resistance to apartheid.Yet, at the same time, some felt the need for a move away from rhetoric and toward the depiction of ordinary life and Njabulo Ndebele, in his 1986 essay, The Rediscovery of the Ordinary expressed this view, seeing politically determined work as inimical to a full depiction of rounded humanity in fiction. His own fiction, in the award-winning collection, Fools and Other Stories (1983), demonstrated that it could be done with grace. The main story, Fools was later reworked into a movie with an all-South African cast.Like Ndebele, JM Coetzee, one of South Africa’s most lauded writers in the 1970s, dealt in subtle ways with issues of power, authority and history. One of the key works of recent South African writing, Coetzee’s novel Waiting for the Barbarians (1980) tackles issues germane to South Africa. His next novel, Life and Times of Michael K (1983), a story of a poor man of colour trying to survive in a civil-war situation, won the Booker Prize in Britain. Age of Iron (1990) takes the perspective of a white academic who is dying even as the townships explode with violence.Coetzee’s next novel, Disgrace (1999), won him a second Booker Prize and caused huge debate in South Africa over its depiction of a post-apartheid reality in which the wounds of the past have not been healed – and new ones are being inflicted. A film of the book, starring John Malkovitch, had its world premier at the Toronto Film Festival in 2008, where it won the International Critics’ Award.An illustrious literary academic, Coetzee published Doubling the Point (1992), and has published a memoir of growing up in South Africa, Boyhood (1998).His more recent works include The Lives of Animals , edited and introduced by Amy Gutmann (1999); The Humanities in Africa – Die Geisteswissenschaften in Afrika (2001); Stranger Shores: Essays, 1986 to 1999 (2001); and two more novels, Youth (2002) and Slow Man (2005).Coetzee was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2003 and the Order of Mapungubwe by the South African government on 27 September 2005 for his “exceptional contribution in the field of literature and for putting South Africa on the world stage.”Back to topAfter apartheid The most prominent question asked of South African writers after the end of apartheid and the release of Nelson Mandela in 1990 was: what will you write about since the primary topic has gone?Well, apartheid may have died, but its effects linger on, and as writers such as Coetzee have demonstrated, the issues of power that haunted the apartheid era are still in many ways with us. The early years of democracy were characterized by a new form of writing which literary critic Stephane Serge Ibinga describes as ‘honeymoon literature’ or ‘the literature of celebration’.One of the most acclaimed of these post-democracy writers is Zakes Mda, who worked for many years as a playwright and poet before publishing his first novels in 1995. He started with two novels, She Plays with the Darkness and Ways of Dying . The latter, the story of a professional mourner, won the M-Net Book Prize. His next novel, The Heart of Redness (2001), won the Commonwealth Prize; it contrasts the past of the 19th century, when the prophetess Nongqawuse brought ruin to the Xhosa people, with a present-day narrative.Ivan Vladislavic is another author pushing into the post-apartheid future, with distinctly post-modern works that play with the conventions of fiction as much as they speak about contemporary realties in South Africa today. He has published two collections of stories, Missing Persons (1990) and Propaganda by Monuments (2000), and two novels, The Folly (1993) and The Restless Supermarket (2001).One of the most irreverent voices to hit the South African literary scene over the past decade is poet Lesego Rampolokeng. His poems are published in Horns for Hondo (1991) and End Beginnings (1993). A powerful live performer of his work, he has collaborated with musicians as well.K Sello Duiker is a young novelist who has recently made a splash in South Africa with two novels that have won him awards and critical acclaim, Thirteen Cents (2000) and The Quiet Violence of Dreams (2001). Set in the urban landscape of Cape Town, the two novels see the world through the eyes of the underdog, a street kid in the first and an ostracised gay student in the second.Mark Behr has been one of the most compelling and controversial additions to the South African literary canon. His first novel, The Smell of Apples (1997), tells of white South Africans who were brainwashed by the apartheid system. Soon after that, Behr admitted that he had been a spy for the apartheid police while a student activist; a graphic illustration, if one were needed, of the divided loyalties felt by many whites in that period. Behr’s second novel, Embrace (2000), deals with the formative experiences of a young homosexual.There are many South African writers still dealing with the legacy of apartheid and the struggle against it, as South Africa finds a new national – and hybrid – identity. One is Zoe Wicomb, whose new novel, David’s Story (2001, winner of the M-Net Book Prize), interrogates the past and present of an anti-apartheid activist, as does Achmat Dangor’s Bitter Fruit (2001).Mike Nicol’s first novel, The Powers That Be (1989), brought a magic-realist sensibility to South African literature, and his latest, The Ibis Tapestry (1998) is a post-modern take on the secrets of South Africa’s apartheid abuses. Among Afrikaans writers now translated into English, notable works have come from Etienne van Heerden, particularly the marvellous Ancestral Voices (1989), and from Marlene Van Niekerk, with the hilarious and horrifying Triomf (1994).Phaswane Mpe’s Welcome to Our Hillbrow (2001) is a critically acclaimed view of the physical and moral decay in both the rural areas of Tiragalong and the urban ghetto of Hillbrow. Kgafela wa Magogodi is a poet who probes issues such as Aids in his collection Thy Condom Come (2000).Some quarters have observed that post-liberation writing has shifted from the representation of racial division to that of class difference, reflecting the new social fabric. In fact, writers have become interested in class relationships rather than race since the government’s black empowerment policy began to help black people join the circle of the white bourgeoisie, while the poor comprise both races even though blacks still dominate this group.Also, a common feature in post-apartheid literature is a concern with nation-building projects. Various authors have explored the possibility of re-assessing past identities in order to construct a new national identity based on a transcultural perspective.Back to topWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.