Kingdom of David and Solomon Supported by Growing Evidence

first_imgThe evidence is coming together to support the Biblical record of David and Solomon. An Israeli publication updates the latest finds.In Haaretz, an Israeli news site, you can watch Bible stories rise from the dust. For decades, liberals critics have said that Biblical kings David and Solomon were mythical heroes invented by later Bible writers. It’s hard to say that any more. Philippe Bohstrom has done a service to those who prefer to trust the Bible over man’s changing opinions, pulling together in one place the latest findings that support the great kings of the united monarchy.The headline is: “Did David and Solomon’s United Monarchy Exist? Vast Ancient Mining Operation May Hold Answers.” Bohstrom opens his survey of Davidic archaeology by sharing the latest findings from Timna, a copper mining site dating from Solomon’s time (1/12/17). “Archaeology has provided precious little evidence for the biblical account of a powerful Judaic kingdom 3,000 years ago, but the sheer extent of copper mining in Timna, when Egypt was in a state of collapse, is otherwise hard to explain.”The opening paragraphs read as if written by a skeptic, complaining about the lack of evidence for “the grandeur described in the biblical accounts of David and Solomon.” But then Bohstrom starts putting the pieces together. (Visited 2,891 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Egyptian carving at Timna. David Coppedge, 2006.The Timna copper mining site was much larger than previously known. Located in the Arabah just north of the Gulf of Aqaba, archaeologists have recently found indications of a major operation going on when David and Solomon lived, including textiles, living quarters and even donkey dung that shows the animals lived well.Radiocarbon dates of some of the organic remains at Timna date from the 10th and 9th centuries BC, the time of Solomon.The Egyptians had been at Timna earlier, as seen from hieroglyphs found, but Egypt was too weak to manage the site when the Bible has Solomon running his empire.Additional copper mines in Edom and two other sites were also major operations. “More than 100,000 tons of slag from the Iron Age have been discovered in the area,” Bohstrom says. Think of the water, food, and equipment needed to run such an enterprise. “The sheer scale of copper production at Timna and Faynan would have required the support of a major polity, scholars studying the Aravah agree.” Moreover, a substantial bureaucracy would have been required in Jerusalem to manage the faraway operation.Edomites were involved in the mining operations, but the question is who was in control. All the other empires near the Levant in that period—Egypt, Edom, Greece, Anatolia and Babylonia, were in a downward spiral when the mines were active.A large stone building in the City of David (south of Jerusalem’s current walls) is being interpreted as King David’s palace by lead archaeologist Eilat Mazar.Stepped Stone Structure, City of David, Jerusalem. David Coppedge, 2006.The “Stepped Stone Structure” below David’s palace appears to be the “Millo” supporting the palace, as described in the Bible. It could have been started by King Saul, the article says.The Tell Dan inscription, found in at Biblical Dan in the north of Israel, marked with the words “house of David,” was the first extra-Biblical reference to David found. Incidentally, a new paper in Science Advances discusses the city of Dan and how its inhabitants handled water and climate.Solomon made extensive use of copper when building the Temple. Detailed descriptions in the Bible have the verisimilitude of truth. They would be unimportant if the narrative only had theological purposes. Archaeologist Gabriel Barkay notes, “There is no reason to specify these technical details that basically are instructions to the contractor.”Khirbet Qeiyafa, a spectacular find south of Jerusalem near where David killed Goliath, with its Judahic style buildings and Hebrew inscriptions, shows that the site was a significant fortress outpost of a powerful king, not a tribal chieftain as minimalists complain.Pottery found at Hazor, far north of Jerusalem, dates from Solomon’s golden age. The “Solomonic gates” found there, according to archaeologist Amnon ben-Tor, who has spent his career excavating the site, fit with the Bible: “Hazor is well-planned, with fortifications, gates and well-built domestic buildings that could not have been built by semi-nomads,” he says.An Egyptian inscription confirms that Shishak, described in the Bible, invaded Judah around the time of Rehoboam, the successor to Solomon.Bohstrom is careful not to overstate the case. Some of the findings can be interpreted different ways. In fact, he appears willing to believe that the Biblical record was embellished by later writers. “Apparently sometimes the Bible is right, other bits have been distorted, and often we simply cannot know,” he says. By this and other statements, we know he is not writing from a conservative view of the inspiration of the Scriptures. But one take-home lesson from his pictorial review of the archaeological evidence is that the minimalists seem to be on the run. Bohstrom gives ample time to minimalist Israel Finkelstein, for instance, to give his views. At one point he lets Finkelstein speculate about Jerusalem’s origins, then responds, “It is a convenient theory, but there is not one shred of evidence to support it.”One other argument he makes deserves attention. Why do historians have no problem with other historical figures, when the archaeological evidence is even weaker? “Today, Homeric kings such as Agamemnon, Nestor, Diomedes and Odysseus are widely accepted as historical figures,” he notes. The implication is that we should not be surprised that much of the evidence for the United Kingdom of David and Solomon has been lost, given that Israel has been repeatedly invaded and destroyed by numerous empires since those famous kings lived.Bohstrom is clearly not a Biblical conservative or apologist. He thinks much of the story of David and Solomon could be mythological. In a way, that makes his article more valuable for Bible believers, because he cannot be said to have an “agenda” to defend the Scriptures. Bible believers need to be aware of how strong or weak the evidence is at this current time, realizing that much of what we would like to see has been lost over the past 3,000 years of this war-ravaged land. Nevertheless, what we do see is consistent with the Biblical record, and nothing repudiates it as false. Be wary of skeptics who have an agenda to disprove the Bible. Arguments from silence are risky.Realize, too, that very little in the land of Israel has been excavated. Think of the revolutionary discoveries in recent years, at Khirbet Qeiyafa, in Jerusalem, at Timna, and at Tell Dan. And it’s only the earliest of the kings that are in dispute; no one doubts the historicity of Omri, Ahab, Jehu, Joash, Hezekiah and later kings. Those later kings, corroborated by extra-biblical evidence, did not pop into existence out of nowhere. They were already established in kingdoms that had founders: David and Solomon. Those kings of the United Monarchy are also book-ended by earlier archaeological evidence of the conquest by Joshua, and of the Exodus (see Illustra film at TheJohn1010Project.com). You can’t read the Old Testament without being impressed by the tremendous amount of detail about David (his movements, numerous officials named, the Psalms, etc) and of Solomon (ditto on historical details, plus Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and Song of Solomon). You come away feeling that these writings have the ring of truth. There is no guile in the accounts, no gratuitous embellishment. No writer trying to glorify these great kings would include their dark sides, describing shocking details of their sins and personal flaws. Inscriptions by the Assyrians and Babylonians never do that, because their purpose was to exalt the glory of their rulers. The Bible is unique in the world: historically accurate, yet morally compelling, always requiring truth. We should use the Bible to validate archaeology, not the other way around.Bible believers do not put their trust in archaeology, since the word of God speaks for itself. It’s exciting, though, to watch the pieces falling into place.last_img read more

Roasting Soybeans for Livestock Rations

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Current economics in both the dairy and soybean industries are causing a resurgence of the decades old practice of roasting soybeans to make them suitable for livestock consumption. The Ohio Ag Net’s Ty Higgins found grain roaster Ed Schmerge and his Roast-A-Matic near Kalida, Ohio earlier this week to find out more.last_img

Choosing an Air Barrier and a Housewrap

first_imgIn the midst of framing his new house, Joe Norm has switched gears and opted out of Zip System sheathing in favor of CDX plywood. The question he faces now is how he should air seal the exterior side of the walls—tape the seams between sheets of plywood, or tape the seams of the water-resistive barrier (WRB) he installs over the sheathing? More to the point, will a common WRB like DuPont’s Tyvek be good enough, or should he be prepared to spend more on an “exotic” product? “I priced out VaproShield IT and it looks to be 3x the cost of Tyvek,” Joe writes in a Q&A post. “Solitex Mento looks to be about 2x the cost. Why are these products so much more and how are they justified over Tyvek?” That’s where we start this Q&A Spotlight.RELATED ARTICLESA New Encyclopedia Article on Water-Resistive BarriersThe Complicated Role of a Water-Resistive BarrierKeeping Water Out of Walls: Housewrap and BeyondA Canadian Couple Needs Help Choosing a Heating SystemCombining Sheathing With a WRB and Air Barrier Staple-up WRBs are not the best air barriers GBA Editor Brian Pontolilo has just finished a series of blogs on WRBs and has come to at least one conclusion: “There is no easy answer when it comes to the performance of individual products.” In order to win code approval, a WRB must pass certain criteria of the International Code Council’s Evaluation Service. Reports on test results offer only limited information, but Pontolilo adds that there are better choices for an air barrier than a staple-up housewrap. “It is well known that staple-up housewraps like Tyvek don’t make the best air barriers,” he says. “At least they are challenging, at best, to detail as an air barrier. If you choose this type of product, taping the plywood seams is a more straightforward approach to air sealing.” If Norm wants his WRB to double duty as an air barrier, Pontolilo would recommend the Zip System sheathing, peel-and-stick membranes, or liquid-applied products instead. Beyond the question of which WRB to use, Pontolilo adds, is the importance of including a ventilated rainscreen in the design. Tighter houses need better WRBs Houses with drafty exteriors can tolerate water more readily than tight houses, AlexPoi writes. If Norm is building a tight house, he’ll be better off with a high-quality WRB. “A little bit of water in a leaky house is not a problem because air movement will dry the sheathing pretty quickly if it gets wet,” AlexPoi says. But when the house is tight, and air movement through the walls is limited, is takes longer for moisture to dissipate. “So, if you are building a tight house with OSB sheathing in a wet climate, I would personally not take the risk to cheap out on the WRB just for the peace of mind,” AlexPoi continues. “After all, a good WRB will cost you just a couple of thousand more but could save you big time.” AlexPoi suggests Norm pay particular attention to flashing details to keep bulk water out. Sheathing makes a robust air barrier Andrew C believes that taping the seams of the plywood sheathing is Norm’s best bet for a durable air barrier. “Properly detailed, the WRB can be a belt-and-suspenders backup air barrier to the taped sheathing, but the sheathing remains primary,” Andrew C writes. “As others have pointed out, flashing design details and attention to these details, along with avoiding dumb designs like dead-ending a roof valley into a wall, are critical to durability.” To Andrew C, a wall design with taped plywood and Tyvek CommercialWrap (a suggestion from Malcolm Taylor as a more durable alternative than Tyvek) makes the most sense. Why opt out of Zip System sheathing? Norm opened his original question by noting that he had decided against using Zip System sheathing, an OSB product with an integral WRB from Huber Engineered Woods that has become increasingly common on both walls and roofs. How come? Patrick O’Sullivan wants to know. “No good reason really,” Norm replies. “I’m not fond of OSB in general and I couldn’t totally get past the idea of hundreds of feet of reverse laps for water to get caught up in. I”m sure Zip is great and in the end I may regret not trying it out.” Even though Taylor thinks taped plywood sheathing and a WRB in sheet form would be a good route, he also thinks Zip Sheathing is worth considering. “Zip-R [a version of the sheathing bonded to a layer of foam insulation] makes some sense to me, and I’m pretty sure Zip will turn out to be a good long-term sheathing/WRB,” he says. But when it comes to choosing a particular WRB, Taylor says that as long as it is installed “diligently,” he hasn’t seen anything suggesting one WRB is significantly better than another. As to the long-term durability of plywood vs. OSB, a question that Zerphyr7 raises, Alex P refers him to an Instagram photo posted by architect Steve Baczek showing two small pieces of Zip sheathing taped together with Zip tape that have been left outside for a decade. “He says the tape is perfectly fine and the edges have swollen a little with full exposure to rain, ice and snow,” Alex P says. Our expert’s opinion GBA Technical Director Peter Yost adds this: I like to keep the air barrier and the water-resistive barrier together so that at penetrations I can seal both in the same plane or location. On the topic of ventilated rainscreens, for all but the driest of climates, I strongly prefer a free-draining and airflow-promoting gap (open top and bottom) between the cladding and the WRB. The one situation that no code-approved test for WRBs requires is water held in tension between the claddings and the WRBs (no gap between them). I have seen this water held in tension result in wet sheathing with a variety of different WRBs. Quite some time ago now, Paul Fisette—now retired, but then head of the Wood Technology and Construction program at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst—worked up a test for water held in tension. You can read that report here. Paul was a “wingnut” long before I codified that term on BuildingGreen and then with Martin’s help here on GBA . On a side note, does WRB stand for “water-resistive barrier,” “water-resistant barrier,” “weather-resistant barrier,” or “weather-resistive barrier?” In the 2018 International Residential Code (IRC), these terms are used interchangeably: water-resistive barrier 30 times, water-resistant barrier six times, weather-resistant barrier three times, and weather-resistive barrier twice. That is just odd. Even more odd is to use the terms “resistive” and “resistant”—both meaning some level of opposition—with the term “barrier,” which means an absolute stop or block. In our industry, we certainly struggle with water and weather, even in our terminology.last_img read more

UAAP jrs basketball: NU ends UST’s dream run, books Finals date vs Ateneo

first_imgView comments Fortea had eight of his 17 points off the bench as he served as the sparkplug for NU to set up the best-of-three championship duel against Ateneo.Oczon chipped 16 markers, while Pao Javillonar dominated the paint with 13 points, 16 boards and two blocks.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSLillard, Anthony lead Blazers over ThunderSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutRhayyan Amsali contributed 12 points and nine rebounds as Matthew Manalang and Winderich Coyoca combined for 19 points built on four triples in the final stage of the stepladder semifinals for the twice-to-beat Bullpups.NU now shifts its focus against the unbeaten Ateneo, with the series set to open on Friday. D-League: Ebondo’s 33 guides unbeaten CEU to third straight win For the complete collegiate sports coverage including scores, schedules and stories, visit Inquirer Varsity. Globe Business launches leading cloud-enabled and hardware-agnostic conferencing platform in PH Read Next 2 ‘newbie’ drug pushers fall in Lucena sting LATEST STORIES AFP official booed out of forum Chief Justice Peralta on upcoming UAAP game: UP has no match against UST PLAY LIST 01:00Chief Justice Peralta on upcoming UAAP game: UP has no match against UST00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City NEXT BLOCK ASIA 2.0 introduces GURUS AWARDS to recognize and reward industry influencers John Lloyd Cruz a dashing guest at Vhong Navarro’s wedding RJ Baquial and Jezreel Villapando carried the fight for the Tiger Cubs with 16 points each as UAAP Season 80 Juniors MVP CJ Cansino was largely checked by the Bullpups defense and could only muster 10 markers on a 4-of-14 shooting, alongside 16 rebounds, and seven assists against four turnovers.The Scores:NU 91 — Fortea 17, Oczon 16, Javillonar 13, Amsali 12, Manalang 11, Coyoca 8, Gonzales 4, Pangilinan 4, Minerva 2, Malonzo 2, Vinoya 2, Dayrit 0, Felicida 0.UST 72 — Baquial 16, Villapando 16, Lina 10, Cansino 10, Narvasa 10, Anunciacion 6, Palencia 2, Dolendo 0, Manabat 0, Relucio 0, Estrella 0, Dela Cruz 0, Benzonan 0.Quarters: 21-17, 45-31, 67-51, 91-72.ADVERTISEMENT Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. MOST READ Nazareth School of National University drew contributions from all fronts to trample University of Santo Tomas, 91-72, and book a return trip to the UAAP Season 80 juniors basketball Finals Tuesday at Filoil Flying V Centre in San Juan.Terrence Fortea and Miguel Oczon teamed up in helping the Bullpups break away in the  killer 17-1 first half blast to establish the commanding 32-17 advantage and go on cruise control from that point on.ADVERTISEMENT Slow and steady hope for near-extinct Bangladesh tortoises Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PHlast_img read more