Composting: It’s a microbial thing

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest We cannot see them, but they are everywhere and that is good. Microbes, not worms, are critical to the composting process. Although microscopic, they are responsible for decomposing vast quantities of organic materials. Without them, our world would be buried in leaves, food waste, manure, and more.While microbial degradation is a natural process, composting involves the mixing of materials and management of the process in such a way that decomposition is accelerated, the waste is treated, and a product is created that can be used to enhance soil health. On farms, composting of manure can reduce pathogens, odors, and the mass of the material by more than 75%, allowing manure nutrients to be cost effectively transported further off the farm.Composting basicsComposting is a relatively simple process but it requires nutrients and moisture to be balanced and the creation of a porous pile structure that can maintain aerobic conditions. The primary nutrients required by compost microbes are carbon (C) for energy and nitrogen (N) for cell function and growth. Ideally, the ratio of C:N should be from 30 to 40. Like all living organisms, microbes also require water. At the beginning of the process, composts should have a moisture content of 65%, which feels like a damp sponge. Moisture will vary between feedstocks and weather conditions, and water or drier materials can be added as necessary. Finished compost should be 35 to 45% water. For homeowners adding one or two handfuls of dry “browns” (leaves or sawdust) for every handful of “greens” (fruit or vegetable wastes) results in a moisture content and C:N ratio that are close to these values, while large scale facilities usually test their materials to calculate optimal mixing ratios.Maintaining aerobic conditions requires creating porosity that allows air to flow through the pile or windrow. If the feedstock particles are small, compacted or wet, this air flow is inhibited and oxygen levels may fall below zero in much of the pile. Anaerobic microbes will take over, slowing the process and generating foul odors. Anaerobic conditions can be easily remedied by assuring that the pile is properly constructed to allow air movement and aerobic conditions. Adding wood chips, or other “bulking agents” can be used to improve porosity and air flow. A persistent myth about composting is that turning is the primary mechanism of supplying air. In fact a typical compost windrow would require nearly 1,000 turns to provide all of the air needed by the microorganisms. Since most windrows are turned less than 10 times, natural passive convection must be relied upon for aeration. Turning is only a means of mixing.Composting starts naturally when a pile of organic materials with the right C:N ratio, moisture content, and porosity is created. Microbes are everywhere and do not need to be added, although some composters jumpstart the process by adding a small amount of finished compost to the recipe. As with most things, learning more about the composting process and experimenting are the keys to success.To learn moreFor home composters, there is plenty of information available online from building a compost bin to what should or should not be composted. A quick Internet search provides most everything one needs to know.For those interested in operating a composting facility at a commercial scale, there’s more to learn. Understanding site design, feedstock mixing, odor management, regulations, marketing, and other aspects of running a large facility are critical. It is extensive information that can be hard to find. A two-day course offered by OSU Extension called the Ohio Compost Operator Training Course is designed to meet the needs of these large-scale composters. This year the course will be offered March 8 and 9 in Wooster. Participants will be taught the fundamentals of composting, including the biology, types of systems, and methods, as well as how to manage the operation, trouble shoot problems, meet regulatory requirements, and ensure a quality product. Instructors include both academics and industry professionals with extensive research and practical experience in composting.For program and registration details, visit our website: http://www.oardc.osu.edu/ocamm.last_img read more

‘Bharat Mata’ temple to come up in Haryana

first_imgThe Haryana government will build a ‘Bharat Mata’ temple at Kurukshetra as part of its attempts to develop the city as a tourist destination of international standards and a centre of religious faith, Chief Minister Manohar Lal Khattar said on Monday.“The ‘Bharat Mata’ temple will be constructed on five acres at a place between Jyotisar and Brahamsarovar. The plan is at the initial stage, and the modalities will be worked out soon,” he said at a press conference meant to announce the schedule for the International Gita Mahotsav-2019, being organized in Kurukshetra from November 23 to December 10. Uttrakhand is the partner State for the Gita Mahotsav, in which 15 countries are participating. “Delegations from the U.K., Mauritius, Australia and Canada are also visiting Kurukshetra for the event. Besides scholars of the universities in Haryana, those of foreign Universities and ambassadors of several countries will take part in the event,” the Chief Minister said. The Government of India had given its consent to the use of the logo of ‘Atulya Bharat’ (Incredible India) during the Gita Mahotsav.Mr. Khattar said the government was also mulling over a plan to offer plots, measuring 1,500-2000 square metres, in Kurukshetra on concessional rates to the States planning to construct ‘Bhawans’ for their pilgrims visiting the city.last_img read more

‘Produce Local and Export Global’ – Metry Seaga

first_img Mr. Seaga said that manufacturing is showing positive signs with good growth numbers each quarter. Jamaica Manufacturers and Exporters’ Association (JMEA) President, Metry Seaga, has charged manufacturers and exporters to “produce local and export global”.He was speaking at the JMEA awards gala held on Saturday (October 6) at The Jamaica Pegasus hotel in New Kingston.Mr. Seaga said that manufacturing is showing positive signs with good growth numbers each quarter.“I personally am very bullish on our little island and what it can do on the international stage in the business of music, the arts, sports, manufacturing and exports… . There is a whole world out there, a big lucrative market. Let us resolve to continue to be a part of the solution to make Jamaica a superstar for all to look at and envy,” he noted.Mr. Seaga told the gathering that manufacturers and exporters are contributing positively to the development of Jamaica through job creation; training unskilled persons; supporting professionals such as nurses, police and teachers; cleaning up the environment and other corporate social activities.During the awards ceremony, the Seprod Group of Companies walked away with the major awards for the evening – the Governor General’s Award for Exporter of the Year 2017, the Governor General’s Award for Manufacturer of the Year, and the Prime Minister’s Award for Large Champion Exporter.Other winners were Bureau of Standards Jamaica, which received the Pauline Gray Award for Best Support Service; Red Stripe, the Energy Efficiency Award and the Corporate Social Responsibility Award; Crafton Holdings Limited, the Nicola Gordon Rowe Buy Jamaican Award; ARC Limited, the Quality and Standards Award; J Wray & Nephew Limited, the Robert Lightbourne Award for Productivity and Competitiveness; Your True Shade Cosmetics, the Ambassador Peter King Award for New Exporter of the Year; Crafton Holdings, the Ray Hadeed Award for Best Micro, Small and Medium-sized Manufacturing Enterprise; and Newport Fersan, the Charles Henderson Award for Breakthrough Product of the Year.Minister without Portfolio in the Ministry of Finance and the Public Service, Hon. Fayval Williams; and Minister of Industry, Commerce, Agriculture and Fisheries, Hon. Audley Shaw, were among the specially invited guests at the event.Mrs. Williams handed over the Prime Minister’s Award for Large Champion Exporter on behalf of the Prime Minister, the Most Hon. Andrew Holness. Jamaica Manufacturers and Exporters’ Association (JMEA) President, Metry Seaga, has charged manufacturers and exporters to “produce local and export global”. Story Highlights He was speaking at the JMEA awards gala held on Saturday (October 6) at The Jamaica Pegasus hotel in New Kingston. last_img read more

Alien hunter spots UFO in images taken during Apollo 12 lunar mission

first_imgNASA/ET DATA BASEIt was in November 1969 that NASA launched the Apollo 12 manned lunar mission. The mission became successful, and the United States space agency successfully landed humans for the second time on the moon after the historical leap made by Neil Armstrong. Now, almost 60 years after the historical mission, prominent alien hunter Scott C Waring has claimed to have discovered a UFO in one of the reexamined Apollo 12 archive photos.”The UFO is hovering over the horizon but at a tilted angle, much like Bob Lazar said about the UFO he worked on in Area S4 needing to tilt to move. The astronauts must have seen it, its not like there is a lot to see on the moon but dust and rocks, but a UFO of this size hovering…must have really blown their minds,” wrote Waring on his website ET Data Base.Waring also added that the possibility of this object being a glitch on the camera is very low.It should be noted that the anomaly spotted by Waring is so small on the real photograph, and he enlarged it to take a close look. Interestingly, the shape of the object spotted in the photo seems very similar to the alleged Black Knight satellite that is out there on earth’s orbit to monitor human activities.Conspiracy theorists also believe that this black knight satellite is deployed by an advanced alien race which is now working hand-in-glove with NASA. A video uploaded by Waring to YouTube that features this new finding has now emerged as the hottest debating point among conspiracy theorists and alien enthusiasts. After watching the video, followers of Waring also put forward several possible theories to explain this bizarre UFO sighting.”That is really cool Scott. Great find. The astronauts supposedly said that they where being watched. Looks like you found proof. Could be the Black Knight or some other type of craft,” commented Terrys Theories, a YouTube user.”Reminds me of the black knight satellite? Looks different at different angles. It is rumoured to an alien craft that shifts around,” commented Corey Frady, another YouTuber.last_img read more

EC to announce Khulna Gazipur polls schedule 31 Mar

first_img.The election commission (EC) will declare the schedule of Gazipur and Khulna city corporation elections on 31 March.The decision was taken at a meeting of the commission on Monday, said EC secretary Helaluddin Ahmed while speaking to journalists.Replying to a question, the EC secretary said the commission would use Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) in different local government elections.Based on the voters’ feedback, they will decide if the EVM will be used in the national election, he added.UNB adds: The five-year tenure of Gazipur City Corporation will end on 4 September while that of Khulna on 25 September.The EC has a legal obligation to complete the election to Gazipur between 8 March and 4 September and that to Khulna between 30 March and 25 September.The EC secretary said the commission meeting discussed elections to five cities — Rajshahi, Khulna, Barisal, Sylhet and Gazipur — and decided to arrange elections to the cities following the dates of the maiden meetings of elected representatives of those cities.He said the EC will declare polls schedules for Gazipur and Khulna cities taking the final decision in this regard on 31 March.Helaluddin, however, said the EC may not announce election schedule for three remaining city corporations — Rajshahi, Barisal and Sylhet — on 31 March.last_img read more