Live updates: Warriors vs. Lakers, Thursday at 7:30 p.m.

first_imgJoin us Thursday at 7:30 p.m. for live news and analysis when the Warriors face the Lakers in Los Angeles as LeBron James remains sidelined.The Warriors (53-24) take a Magic Number of 3 into the game and need a combination of three Warriors wins or Denver losses to clinch the top seed in the Western Conference. Golden State has just five games remaining in the regular season.The Lakers (35-43) have long been eliminated from the playoff hunt and will finish their highly disappointing …last_img read more

Through his attorney, Luke Walton addresses allegations of sexual assault

first_imgThe attorney for Luke Walton on Tuesday emphatically denied accusations of sexual assault on the part of the one-time Warriors assistant coach and newly hired head coach of the Sacramento Kings.“The accuser is an opportunist, not a victim, and her claim is not credible,” Mark Baute said in a statement to several media outlets. “We intend to prove this in a courtroom.”TMZ broke the news Monday afternoon, reporting that a sports journalist had filed a civil lawsuit against Walton for assault …last_img read more

South African literature

first_imgAn overview of the main currents in South African literature, from Olive Schreiner’s depiction of life on isolated Karoo farms to more recent work that tackles the aftermath of apartheid and pushes into the post-apartheid future.South Africa has a rich and diverse literary history. (Image: Okay Africa)Brand South Africa reporterSouth Africa has a rich and diverse literary history, with realism, until relatively recently, dominating works of fiction.Fiction has been written in all of South Africa’s 11 official languages – with a large body of work in Afrikaans and English. This overview focuses primarily on English fiction, though it also touches on major poetic developments.Sections in this article:The colonial adventureTruly South African voices Emergence of black writing Between the wars The 1940sThe Drum decade: urban black life Gordimer: liberalism to radicalismFigures of the 1960s The Soweto poetsThe emergency years After apartheidThe colonial adventure The first fictional works to emerge from South Africa were produced by colonial writers whose attitude to indigenous South Africans was, at best, ambivalent, if not outright hostile. This is especially true of the writers of adventure-type stories, in which colonial heroes are romanticised and the role of black South Africans was reduced to that of enemy or servant.One such writer, Rider Haggard, wrote many mythical and adventure stories, beginning in the early 1880s. His most famous book is King Solomon’s Mines (1886), a bestseller in its day (and filmed several times up to the 1980s). Like subsequent novels such as Allan Quartermain and She (both 1887), its central character is the hunter Allan Quartermain, Haggard’s ideal of the colonial gentleman.Although Haggard wrote many other adventures and fantasies, it is his highly coloured African works that are still read today.Back to topTruly South African voices Olive Schreiner’s novel, The Story of an African Farm (1883) is generally considered to be the founding text of South African literature. Schreiner was born on a mission station and worked as a governess on isolated Karoo farms, an experience that informed the novel.The novel draws on the post-romantic sensibility of Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights, and is still a key text in the formation of a truly South African voice. However, it has been criticised for its silence with regard to the black African presence in South Africa. Schreiner’s other work includes a critique of Cecil John Rhodes’s brutal form of colonialism, Trooper Peter Halkett of Mashonaland (1897), and the polemical Women and Labour (1911).Douglas Blackburn, a maverick British journalist who came to South Africa when the Transvaal was still a Boer republic, had something in common with Schreiner. In several newspapers, he denounced British colonial attitudes as well as satirising Boer corruption. He wrote two novels set in this world, Prinsloo of Prinsloosdorp (1899) and A Burgher Quixote (1903), capturing with a great deal of sly humour the personality and situation of the Boer at the time. His later novel Leaven (1908) is a moving denunciation of “blackbirding” (the recruitment of people through trickery and kidnappings to work on farms) and other iniquitous labour practices, and Love Muti (1915) attacks British colonial attitudes.Emergence of black writing Literature by black South Africans emerged in the 20 th century. The first generation of mission-educated African writers sought to restore dignity to Africans by invoking and reconstructing a heroic African past.The first novel by a black South African was Mhudi (completed in 1920 but only published in 1930), by Solomon (Sol) Thekiso Plaatje. This epic story follows the trajectory of the Tswana people during and after their military encounter with the Zulus under Shaka, the Zulu conqueror of the 19th century, and encompasses their earliest encounters with the white people moving into the interior.Viewed as the founding father of black literature in South Africa, Plaatje was also the first secretary general of the then South African Native National Congress (now the African National Congress) at its foundation in 1912. His Native Life in South Africa (1916) was a seminal text in the study of land dispossession in South Africa. He also wrote a diary of the siege of Mafeking during the Boer War, and translated Shakespeare into seTswana language.While Plaatje’s Mhudi related the history of the Tswana people in South African literature, Thomas Mofolo’s Chaka reinvents the legendary Zulu king, Shaka. Mofolo portrays him as a heroic but tragic figure, a monarch to rival Shakespeare’s Macbeth. Mofolo, however, also invests Shaka with a complex personality, in which good and evil are at war – in contrast to white colonial historians who made him a simplistic monster of tribal savagery. Completed in 1910, the novel was published in 1925 and the first English translation came out in 1930.Between the wars Perhaps the dominant figure of South African literature in the period between the two world wars was Sarah Gertrude Millin, whose reputation has faded considerably since her death. This can be predicated on her politics: she was initially a devout supporter of Jan Smuts’ government, but later became something of an apologist for apartheid.Her views on the “tragedy” of racial miscegenation were put forward in God’s Stepchildren (1924). Seen in terms of racial hierarchies, with whites at the top and blacks at the bottom, Millin’s views represented those held widely at the time.Her later novels continued to deal with the predicament of coloured (mixed-race) people in South Africa, or attempted to describe the world of indigenous peoples.Back to topThe 1940s The 1940s saw the beginnings of a flowering of literature by black South Africans such as HIE Dhlomo whose work preached a “return to the source” – the wisdom of finding traditional ways of dealing with modern problems. His work includes several plays and the long poem The Valley of a Thousand Hills (1941). Poets such as BW Vilakazi, who wrote in Zulu, gave new literary life to their indigenous languages.Peter Abrahams, a writer of mixed race descent, published his first novel Mine Boy in 1946, the same year a large miners’ strike was violently suppressed by Smuts’ government. Mine Boy depicts life in black urban areas of the time, and dramatises the problems of rural people in a depressed urban environment – a theme that was referred to as the “Jim comes to Jo’burg” phenomenon in South African literature.Later works by Abrahams (who left South Africa and settled in Britain before finally moving to Jamaica) include The Path of Thunder (1948), which deals with interracial love; Return to Goli (1953), about his journey back to report on life in Johannesburg; and his autobiography Tell Freedom (1954).Another South African writer who emerged in the 1940s, Herman Charles Bosman, is best known for his tales, a portrait of Afrikaner storytelling skills and social attitudes. The first collection of stories was published in Mafeking Road in 1947. Among the most famous are Unto Dust and In the Withaak’s Shade. Bosman, who was once jailed for the mysterious murder of his half-brother, also wrote poetry, novels, and much journalism, often satirical. One of his best works, Cold Stone Jug (1949), is a semi-fictionalised account of his time in jail. All his books have been reissued in new 2001 editions to coincide with the 50th anniversary of his death.Bosman had satirised social attitudes in South Africa, but it was the work of a former white schoolteacher, Alan Paton, that brought the world’s attention to the situation of black people in South Africa. Cry, The Beloved Country (1948) is possibly the most famous novel to have come out of South Africa. When it was first published, it was an international bestseller, launching Paton, to worldwide fame. The novel put South Africa on the map of international politics by making visible to Western audiences the effects of racial prejudice and the oppression of black people. The novel was turned into a movie in 1995.It is the story of a black priest who travels to Johannesburg in search of his son, who had fallen victim to the corrupting influence of the city. The novel explores themes of corruption and forgiveness, putting forward a liberal-humanist view of South Africa’s racial politics – as well as Paton’s deeply felt Christianity. The novel has a lovely poetic language, with extensive use of Biblical cadences, though Paton has also been criticised for a possibly condescending portrayal of black people.Back to topThe Drum decade: urban black life The 1950s also saw a new generation of black writers talking about the conditions of their lives in their own voices – voices with a distinctive stamp and style. The popular Drum magazine in the 1950s was their forum, and encouraged their emergence. It depicted a vibrant urban black culture for the first time – a world of jazz, shebeens (illegal drinking dens), and flamboyant gangsters (tsotsis).These Drum writers, whose style will be later described by renowned writer Es’kia Mphahlele as “racy, agitated, impressionistic, it quivered with a nervous energy, a caustic wit”, depicted urban deprivation, and also the resilience of people who survived “without visible means of subsistence”. They recorded satirical stories ridiculing the discriminatory and repressive policies of the state, while others provided harrowing details of the effect of apartheid legislation on people’s lives.Their work ranged from the investigative journalism of Henry Nxumalo to the witty social commentary of Todd Matshikiza; others such as Nat Nakasa, Can Themba and Mphahlele moved toward embodying their visions of black South African life in poetry or fiction.Later, Nakasa edited a literary journal, The Classic, that published work such as Themba’s story “The Suit” (1963), now regarded as a classic of South African literature. Themba was banned by the apartheid state and died in 1968 in exile, but others such as Mphahlele pursued their literary careers.Lewis Nkosi became a noted literary critic in Europe and the United States. Other notable writers connected in some way to Drum include William Bloke Modisane, Arthur Maimane, Dyke Sentso, James Matthews, Peter Clarke, Richard Rive, Jordan Ngubane, Alex La Guma and Casey Motsisi. Modisane wrote the autobiography Blame Me on History (1963), Matthews has written much poetry and a novel, and Rive wrote Buckingham Palace, District Six (1986), about life in that coloured Cape Town area, and two novels about South African states of emergency, decades apart, Emergency (1964) and Emergency Continued (1989).The Drum Decade , edited by Michael Chapman, and A Good Looking Corpse , by Mike Nicol, anthologise and comment on key works of this era.Professor E’skia Mphahlele’s autobiographical Down Second Avenue (1959) is a landmark in the development of South African fiction. Set in a village and a township near Pretoria, the text records in evocative language the resilience of various female characters in Mphahlele’s life, women who defied poverty and urban squalor to bring him up. At the same time, they are presented with complexity and depth – his grandmother, for one, is a rather tyrannical figure.Mphahlele went on to write critiques The African Image (1962), short stories Man Must Live (1946), In Corner B (1967), as well as further novels, including The Wanderers (1971), in some ways an extension of the autobiographical form of Down Second Avenue . He also wrote poetry and autobiography. Taken as a whole, Mphahlele’s oeuvre represents one of the most important views of the life experience and developing views of a politically aware South African.In 2007, actor and theatre director James Ngcobo reworked Mphahlele’s poignant and emotional story The Suitcase into a highly successful play.Back to topGordimer: liberalism to radicalism At the same time as the Drum generation was creating the first urban black voice, one of South Africa’s most important white writers was beginning her long, distinguished career. Nadine Gordimer published her first short stories in the early 1950s and in 1991 she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. Between those two dates, her many novels and short stories articulated key issues for white South Africans sympathetic to the plight of disenfranchised blacks, as well as providing for the outside world a devastating picture of what it was like to live under apartheid.In her first published novel The Lying Days (1953), Gordimer charts the growing political awareness of a young white woman, Helen, towards small-town life and South African racial divisionHer second novel, A World of Strangers (1958), shows the first fruitful but often frightening encounters between white and black people in the heady days of Sophiatown. By the time of The Late Bourgeois World (1966), Gordimer is dealing directly with the effects of the black liberation movement on white South Africans, showing the divided soul of the white liberal in a morally ambivalent situation. The Conservationist (1974) pits Afrikaner land hunger against the indigenous population in an often phantasmagoric narrative. Burger’s Daughter (1979) depicts the involvement of radical white activists in the liberation struggle. July’s People (1981), perhaps Gordimer’s most powerful novel, projects into the future the final collapse of white supremacy and what that might mean for white and black people on an intimate level. Her other works (and her short stories are regarded as among her finest work) deal with issues such as love across the colour line and, more recently, the emergence of South Africa into a democracy after the release of Nelson Mandela in 1990 – a society still dealing with a myriad contradictions.Back to topFigures of the 1960s In the early 1960s, the State of Emergency used by the apartheid state to crack down on dissidents and the banning of political organisations sent many black writers into exile. Among them was Alex la Guma, a Marxist and ANC leader who saw the purpose of his work as the exposure of the dreadful conditions of South Africa’s oppressed.His novella A Walk in the Night (1962) shows the life of crime to which slum inhabitants are driven, and And a Threefold Cord (1967) contrasts the existence of a black worker in a white home with her employers’ affluent life. The later novel, In the Fog of the Season’s End (1972), possibly his best, shows the developing consciousness of a man dedicated to the underground struggle for freedom. As a “listed person”, little of La Guma’s work was available in South Africa until 1990, when the liberation movements were unbanned.At the same time, in the 1960s, the Afrikaans literary scene had a rush of new blood, as literary writers such as Jan Rabie, Etienne Leroux, Breyten Breytenbach and Andre Brink emerged. Publishing first in Afrikaans, these writers were increasingly politicised by the situation in South Africa and their contrasting experiences overseas.Breytenbach, who began as one of the most linguistically radical new poets in Afrikaans, left South Africa for France in 1960, where he became a vocal critic of the apartheid state. Later, in the 1970s, he returned to South Africa and was arrested and jailed for work he was doing for the liberation movement. From this experience came his extraordinary prison memoir, True Confessions of an Albino Terrorist (1996). His prison poetry was published in English in Judas Eye (1988). Breytenbach’s return visits to South Africa are recorded, mixing reportage and imaginative commentary, in A Season in Paradise (1976) and Return to Paradise (1993). His essays have been published in The Memory of Birds in Times of Revolution (1996). Even under an ANC government as he was under a Nationalist one, Breytenbach remains caustic about politics and power.Andre Brink stayed in South Africa to see his novels become the first Afrikaans works banned by the government. Written in English as well as Afrikaans, his novels have become as important a part of South African English-language literature as they are in Afrikaans. Having published several novels in Afrikaans during the 1960s, it was his novel Looking on Darkness (1973) that was first banned.His immensely powerful novel A Dry White Season (1982), focused on the death in detention of a black activist, and caused great irritation to the apartheid state, while conscientising many white South Africans. It was also banned, then unbanned. Later novels by this prolific novelist include An Act of Terror (1991), dealing with an Afrikaner dissident turned “terrorist”, and On the Contrary (1993), a playful reworking of South Africa’s colonial history.During this period, Bessie Head emerged as a leading South African woman writer. Of mixed blood, and with a traumatic family history, Head left South Africa to avoid its racial policies and lived in Botswana, where she felt more at ease. Her novels show a marked sympathy with ordinary peasant women; her heroines are poor but strong-willed, women who have to face up to various forms of prejudice.Her first novel was When Rain Clouds Gather (1968), followed by Maru (1971), The Collector of Treasures (1977), and A Question of Power (1973). The Collector of Treasures is her most autobiographical work, dealing with the traumas of her own illegitimate mixed-race birth, her mother’s suicide and her own nervous breakdown.Another writer to make his name in the 1960s was Wilbur Smith, South Africa’s a worldwide best-selling author. In many ways he is the heir to the tradition of Rider Haggard – some would say politically as well.His earliest novels are probably his best: Where the Lion Feeds (1964) and The Sound of Thunder (1966) are set in the era of the foundation of gold-mining in South Africa. Others go as far afield as the state of Israel, Ethiopia during the Italian invasion, piracy in the age of sail, or, more recently, investigate the pharaonic times of Ancient Egypt. His latest novel, The Quest (2007), is New York Times’s best seller as well as best seller in several European countries.The 1960s also saw the emergence of a new generation of white South African poets, among them Douglas Livingstone, Sidney Clouts, Ruth Miller, Lionel Abrahams and Stephen Gray. Their work ranges from powerful apprehensions of natural life (Livingstone) to more interior, meditative considerations (Abrahams), and a sardonic socio-political sensibility (Gray).Gray has also written novels, plays and much criticism. Abrahams has written two semi-autobiographical novels, The Celibacy of Felix Greenspan (1977) and The White Life of Felix Greenspan (2002).Back to topThe Soweto poets The 1970s are widely regarded as a defining period for the development of political consciousness among black South Africans. With the rise of the Black Consciousness (BC) movement, of which the martyred Bantu Steve Biko was a leading figure, and the school children’s revolt of 1976, literature became a vehicle to promote the political ideals of anti-apartheid popular movements. The genres of drama and poetry were utilised for their immediacy of impact.The most notable writers from this period are Mongane (Wally) Serote, Sipho Sepamla, Oswald Joseph Mbuyiseni Mtshali, Christopher van Wyk, Mafika Gwala and Don Mattera. Couched in graphic language designed to arouse the emotions of listeners, their poems were often performed at political rallies.While Mtshali’s poems, first published in 1971 in The Sound of a Cowhide Drum , asked for generalised sympathy for the plight of poor black people, and Sepamla was at first considered a “contemplative” poet, the tone soon changed. By the time of The Soweto I Love (1977), Sepamla’s poetic persona is fully identified with the oppressed. Sepamla also wrote a novel of this turbulent time, A Ride on the Whirlwind (1981). Sepamla, apart from being a leading arts teacher, has written several other novels, and his Selected Poems were published in 1984.Serote’s early poems, in volumes such as Yakhal’inkomo (1972) and Tsetlo (1974), deal with the life and attitudes of a politically aware black person, looking at his society and its discontentment. In later volumes, Serote begins to develop an epic, incantatory voice, with the long poems of Behold Mama, Flowers (1978) and Come and Hope with Me (1994), winner of the Noma Award for Publishing in Africa.Serote (who became an ANC leader) is also the author of the novel To Every Birth Its Blood (1981), a remarkable account of political activity in the 1970s. Serote’s later novel, Gods of our Time (1999), reconstructs civil and military campaigns which led to the demise of apartheid.Other interesting fiction to deal with the Soweto revolt and subsequent political activity include Miriam Tlali’s Amandla (1980) and Mbulelo Mzamane’s The Children of Soweto (1982). Don Mattera has written an account of life in Sophiatown, and its destruction, Memory is the Weapon (1987).The emergency years A mass democratic movement, based on the ideals of the Freedom Charter, arose within the country in the 1980s and the state responded with successive states of emergency that brought white troops to the townships.In the face of this, poets such as the orator Mzwakhe Mbuli reached vast audiences, while novelists such as Menan du Plessis and Mandla Langa engaged with the business of resistance to apartheid.Yet, at the same time, some felt the need for a move away from rhetoric and toward the depiction of ordinary life and Njabulo Ndebele, in his 1986 essay, The Rediscovery of the Ordinary expressed this view, seeing politically determined work as inimical to a full depiction of rounded humanity in fiction. His own fiction, in the award-winning collection, Fools and Other Stories (1983), demonstrated that it could be done with grace. The main story, Fools was later reworked into a movie with an all-South African cast.Like Ndebele, JM Coetzee, one of South Africa’s most lauded writers in the 1970s, dealt in subtle ways with issues of power, authority and history. One of the key works of recent South African writing, Coetzee’s novel Waiting for the Barbarians (1980) tackles issues germane to South Africa. His next novel, Life and Times of Michael K (1983), a story of a poor man of colour trying to survive in a civil-war situation, won the Booker Prize in Britain. Age of Iron (1990) takes the perspective of a white academic who is dying even as the townships explode with violence.Coetzee’s next novel, Disgrace (1999), won him a second Booker Prize and caused huge debate in South Africa over its depiction of a post-apartheid reality in which the wounds of the past have not been healed – and new ones are being inflicted. A film of the book, starring John Malkovitch, had its world premier at the Toronto Film Festival in 2008, where it won the International Critics’ Award.An illustrious literary academic, Coetzee published Doubling the Point (1992), and has published a memoir of growing up in South Africa, Boyhood (1998).His more recent works include The Lives of Animals , edited and introduced by Amy Gutmann (1999); The Humanities in Africa – Die Geisteswissenschaften in Afrika (2001); Stranger Shores: Essays, 1986 to 1999 (2001); and two more novels, Youth (2002) and Slow Man (2005).Coetzee was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2003 and the Order of Mapungubwe by the South African government on 27 September 2005 for his “exceptional contribution in the field of literature and for putting South Africa on the world stage.”Back to topAfter apartheid The most prominent question asked of South African writers after the end of apartheid and the release of Nelson Mandela in 1990 was: what will you write about since the primary topic has gone?Well, apartheid may have died, but its effects linger on, and as writers such as Coetzee have demonstrated, the issues of power that haunted the apartheid era are still in many ways with us. The early years of democracy were characterized by a new form of writing which literary critic Stephane Serge Ibinga describes as ‘honeymoon literature’ or ‘the literature of celebration’.One of the most acclaimed of these post-democracy writers is Zakes Mda, who worked for many years as a playwright and poet before publishing his first novels in 1995. He started with two novels, She Plays with the Darkness and Ways of Dying . The latter, the story of a professional mourner, won the M-Net Book Prize. His next novel, The Heart of Redness (2001), won the Commonwealth Prize; it contrasts the past of the 19th century, when the prophetess Nongqawuse brought ruin to the Xhosa people, with a present-day narrative.Ivan Vladislavic is another author pushing into the post-apartheid future, with distinctly post-modern works that play with the conventions of fiction as much as they speak about contemporary realties in South Africa today. He has published two collections of stories, Missing Persons (1990) and Propaganda by Monuments (2000), and two novels, The Folly (1993) and The Restless Supermarket (2001).One of the most irreverent voices to hit the South African literary scene over the past decade is poet Lesego Rampolokeng. His poems are published in Horns for Hondo (1991) and End Beginnings (1993). A powerful live performer of his work, he has collaborated with musicians as well.K Sello Duiker is a young novelist who has recently made a splash in South Africa with two novels that have won him awards and critical acclaim, Thirteen Cents (2000) and The Quiet Violence of Dreams (2001). Set in the urban landscape of Cape Town, the two novels see the world through the eyes of the underdog, a street kid in the first and an ostracised gay student in the second.Mark Behr has been one of the most compelling and controversial additions to the South African literary canon. His first novel, The Smell of Apples (1997), tells of white South Africans who were brainwashed by the apartheid system. Soon after that, Behr admitted that he had been a spy for the apartheid police while a student activist; a graphic illustration, if one were needed, of the divided loyalties felt by many whites in that period. Behr’s second novel, Embrace (2000), deals with the formative experiences of a young homosexual.There are many South African writers still dealing with the legacy of apartheid and the struggle against it, as South Africa finds a new national – and hybrid – identity. One is Zoe Wicomb, whose new novel, David’s Story (2001, winner of the M-Net Book Prize), interrogates the past and present of an anti-apartheid activist, as does Achmat Dangor’s Bitter Fruit (2001).Mike Nicol’s first novel, The Powers That Be (1989), brought a magic-realist sensibility to South African literature, and his latest, The Ibis Tapestry (1998) is a post-modern take on the secrets of South Africa’s apartheid abuses. Among Afrikaans writers now translated into English, notable works have come from Etienne van Heerden, particularly the marvellous Ancestral Voices (1989), and from Marlene Van Niekerk, with the hilarious and horrifying Triomf (1994).Phaswane Mpe’s Welcome to Our Hillbrow (2001) is a critically acclaimed view of the physical and moral decay in both the rural areas of Tiragalong and the urban ghetto of Hillbrow. Kgafela wa Magogodi is a poet who probes issues such as Aids in his collection Thy Condom Come (2000).Some quarters have observed that post-liberation writing has shifted from the representation of racial division to that of class difference, reflecting the new social fabric. In fact, writers have become interested in class relationships rather than race since the government’s black empowerment policy began to help black people join the circle of the white bourgeoisie, while the poor comprise both races even though blacks still dominate this group.Also, a common feature in post-apartheid literature is a concern with nation-building projects. Various authors have explored the possibility of re-assessing past identities in order to construct a new national identity based on a transcultural perspective.Back to topWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.last_img read more

Changes made to rules on applying fertilizer

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Take a whole class or just take the test, which is better? Farmers will get to decide.Those who apply fertilizer on 50 or more acres now have the option to take an exam or attend a three-hour course to get the required certification aimed at protecting water quality.The exam is a new option the Ohio Department of Agriculture will offer to make it easier for farmers to get certified and yet ensure that those who are applying fertilizer know the safest measures. The exam option was one of the rule changes on fertilizer certification that went into effect Oct. 1.The other changes include the following:Those renewing their fertilizer certificate, which must be done every three years, must either pass a fertilizer exam or take a one-hour class. Previously, the recertification class was two hours.Two new items were added to the required records that certified fertilizer applicators must keep: Now they must record the number of acres where they applied fertilizer and the total amount of fertilizer applied.Only one person at a farm or business needs to be certified to apply fertilizer. A family member or employee of the certificate holder can apply fertilizer under their direct supervision, meaning the certificate holder has instructed that person where, when and how to apply fertilizer, and is no farther than 25 miles away or within two hours travel of the applicator working under their direct supervision. The rule change clarified that provision.Certificate holders who do not also hold a license to apply pesticide will see their fertilizer certificate period change to April 1 to March 31. Previously, it was June 1 to May 31. The new cycle is aimed at ensuring that certifications will generally be in place prior to the planting season.A grace period of 180 days is offered to certificate holders who do not send in their application and payment prior to the date their certificate expires. However, in renewing their certificate, the applicant has to have completed the required training or test before March 31.Since Sept. 30, growers who apply fertilizer to more than 50 acres have been required to be certified, a measure aimed at keeping nutrients from farm fields from contributing to algal blooms in Lake Erie and other bodies of water. Phosphorus and nitrogen in fertilizer can trigger the growth of algal blooms. Those blooms produce toxins in the water, making it unsafe to swim in or drink. And as the blooms decompose, they take oxygen from the water, depleting the supply available for other aquatic life. The extent of 2017 algal blooms in Lake Erie was the fourth most severe in recent history, according to a November report from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.All the recent changes are aimed at making the certification process less burdensome on farmers, said Peggy Hall, agricultural and resource law field specialist for Ohio State University Extension.OSU Extension provides training for applying fertilizer, focusing on teaching how to apply fertilizer at the correct rate, time and location in the field, to keep nutrients in the field and available to crops while increasing stewardship of nearby and downstream water resources.“The goal of the entire program is that we constantly educate ourselves about how we are applying these fertilizers and make sure we understand the science behind it,” Hall said.“Hopefully more education, more understanding and continued research will help with the runoff issue.”Across Ohio, an estimated 3,700 private fertilizer applicators have certificates expiring in March 2018, according to records from the Ohio Department of Agriculture.OSU Extension will begin offering recertification programs in nearly every county this fall and winter, said Mary Ann Rose, program director for OSU Extension’s Pesticide Safety Education Program.“Most of the fertilizer recertification programs will be offered in combination with pesticide recertification meetings; farmers will have the option to attend either or both,” Rose said.For more information, visit agri.ohio.gov/apps/odaprs/pestfert-PRS-index.aspx and nutrienteducation.osu.edulast_img read more

Malaysias new finance minister was jailed twice by Mahathir

first_imgMalaysia`s newly elected Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad attends a news conference in Menara Yayasan Selangor, Pataling Jaya, Malaysia 12 May 2018. ReutersMalaysian prime minister Mahathir Mohamad’s finance minister, relatively unknown in international financial circles, is a man he threw into prison twice.Mahathir announced three top cabinet posts on Saturday, including Lim Guan Eng, a former banker and chartered accountant, as finance minister. It is for the first time in 44 years that the finance ministry is being headed by a member of the ethnic Chinese community.In the last administration, the post was held by ousted prime minister Najib Razak, who was handed a thumping defeat by Mahathir’s alliance in Wednesday’s general election.Lim, 58, is best known in Malaysia for being the chief minister of Penang, the second richest state in the country and home to a popular tourist island and industrial port.But economic analysts say he may need more than that at a time when the country has to make sweeping economic and fiscal reforms and reassure markets that the political change will not have an economic impact.Malaysian markets have been closed since the election, but overseas investors have been nervous of what lies ahead because of Mahathir’s populist promises.As finance minister, Lim will be expected to oversee the new government’s plan to repeal a deeply unpopular goods and services tax, which it has promised to do within the first 100 days. He will also have to manage the revenue shortfall that will cause.”His initial focus will be mostly domestic issues – executing campaign promises and reducing inefficiencies so that the government can still maintain fiscal discipline,” said Hasan Jafri, who heads Singapore-based business consultancy HJ Advisory.But he added: “He will have to work quickly to broaden ties with the international financial community.”Lim would likely be guided by the government’s newly appointed five-member advisory team, which includes former Malaysian finance minister Daim Zainuddin and central bank governor Zeti Akhtar Aziz, both of whom are well known overseas.Some analysts said Lim had built a good reputation as an economic manager in Penang, which recorded the highest GDP per capita among Malaysian states in 2016.”By almost all accounts… Guan Eng did a stellar job in rebuilding the finances of Penang,” said Oh Ei Sun, senior adviser for international affairs at the Kuala Lumpur-based Asia Strategy & Leadership Institute.”He has both the expertise as an accountant and the credibility, especially incorruptibility, to run MOF,” he said, using the acronym for the finance ministry.Jailed twice, smiling now”He’s an excellent and confidence-boosting choice besides fulfilling the ruling coalition’s pledge that the PM shall not be the finance minister,” said Yeah Kim Leng, veteran economist and external member of the central bank’s monetary policy committee.Mahathir has previously said that separating the two roles was essential to avoid a repeat of the multi-billion-dollar graft scandal at state fund 1Malaysia Development Berhad (1MDB) which has dogged Najib since 2015 and contributed to his electoral defeat.Lim was a bitter foe of Mahathir during his earlier 22-year stint as prime minister and was thrown in jail twice. Mahathir jailed Lim during a political crackdown in October 1987 that he said was aimed at preventing racial riots, and again in 1998 under the Sedition Act.On Saturday, a smiling Lim stood by 92-year-old Mahathir as his appointment was announced.The prime minister also announced a home affairs minister and a defence minister to take the number in his cabinet to five. Mahathir and deputy prime minister Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, the wife of his jailed ally Anwar Ibrahim, make up the rest.Lim told reporters after his appointment that the government’s plan was to review all contracts to ensure that jobs and business opportunities for Malaysians were made secure, as well as reduce the financial burden on low-income groups.”The primary focus will be still on helping those who find it very hard to make ends meet,” he told reporters.”Our focus will be to see how we can make their lives a little easier.”In its election manifesto, Mahathir’s alliance had also promised to review foreign investments, including major infrastructure projects that are part of China’s Belt and Road initiative, bring back fuel subsidies, and raise minimum wages.Lim, has spent most of his life as a member of the opposition Democratic Action Party (DAP) fighting against the then ruling Barisan Nasional alliance.The son of another prominent DAP leader, Lim Kit Siang, he studied economics at Monash University in Australia and was first elected as a member of parliament in 1986.Lim led the opposition to victory in Penang for the first time in its history in 2008. He was then appointed as the state’s chief minister and has held the position since.Asked about being an ethnic Chinese finance minister in a Muslim Malay-majority nation, he said: “I don’t consider myself as a Chinese. I am a Malaysian.”last_img

Art reformed

first_imgReconstructing the narration from damaged or thrown iron objects to weave newer stories, Delhi based artist Gopal Namjoshi is all set to exhibit Iron Installations over an Art Exhibition at India Habitat Center. The exhibition will be starting from March 21 for a period of 20 days . The artist has reconstructed the scratched, broken, damaged, thrown etc to shape up these installations. As Namjoshi, believes that iron objects to weave newer stories taking the forms of cows, birds, humans, monkeys, insects, goats and the living world of all organisms. The beauty of his sculpted animals, human forms are having genuine expressions which can be seen reflecting out of the metallic lifeless forms because their heart bears the true spirit and yet not mechanical. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Gopal Namjoshi is an independent artist and muralist working in the area of arts, crafts and design and have been practising for over 25 years now. Gopal has craved niche for himself with his innovative scale of works. After spending his formative years as a designer, lecturer, consultant and an advertising professional in Jaipur, has moved his base to Delhi-Gurgaon and has swiftly been picking up to the likes of the city.Born in 1961 in Jaipur, Gopal Namjoshi studied art for five years at the Rajasthan School of Arts, Jaipur and was also awarded Gold Medal for achieving 1st position in another five Year diploma in Fine Arts from, School of Arts, Jaipur.When: On from March 21Where: India Habitat Center,  Lodhi Roadlast_img read more

SpaceX Rocket Launches Satellite Then Lands on Ship at Sea

first_img Hear from Polar Explorers, ultra marathoners, authors, artists and a range of other unique personalities to better understand the traits that make excellence possible. 2 min read An unmanned SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket blasted off from Florida on Friday to put a communications satellite into orbit, then made a swift return landing on an ocean platform, a live webcast showed.It was the second successful landing at sea for entrepreneur Elon Musk’s Space Exploration Technologies, or SpaceX, which intends to offer cut-rate launch services by re-using its rockets.”Woohoo!!” Musk wrote on social media website Twitter after the landing. “May need to increase size of rocket storage hangar.”SpaceX successfully landed a rocket on a floating landing pad in April after four failed attempts. Another Falcon rocket had touched down on a ground-based landing pad at Cape Canaveral in December.Before Friday’s launch SpaceX had downplayed expectations for the rocket’s successful return.The rocket flying on Friday was traveling twice as fast as the one that landed last month so it could deliver a hefty television broadcast satellite into an orbit more than 20,000 miles beyond that of the International Space Station, which is about 250 miles above Earth.The 23-story tall rocket lifted off from a seaside launch pad at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 1:21 a.m. EDT.Perched atop the booster was the JCSAT-14 satellite, owned by the Tokyo-based telecommunications company, SKY Perfect JSAT Corp, a new customer for SpaceX.About two and a half minutes after launch the rocket’s first stage shut down, separated, flipped around and headed toward a so-called drone ship stationed more than 400 miles off Florida’s east coast in the Atlantic Ocean.The rocket’s second stage continued flying to deliver the 10,300-pound JCSAT-14 satellite into orbit.The satellite, built by Space Systems Loral in Palo Alto, Calif., a subsidiary of MacDonald Dettwiler and Associates is designed to provide television, data and mobile communications services to customers across Asia, Russia and Oceania and the Pacific Islands.Friday’s launch was the fourth of more than a dozen flights planned this year by SpaceX, which has a backlog of more than $10 billion worth of launch orders from customers including NASA.Last week SpaceX won its first contract to launch a U.S. military satellite, breaking a 10-year-old monopoly held by United Launch Alliance, a partnership of Lockheed Martin Corp. and Boeing Co.(By Irene Klotz; Editing by Clarence Fernandez, Greg Mahlich) This story originally appeared on Reuters How Success Happens May 6, 2016 Listen Nowlast_img read more

Creating a simple modular application in Java 11 Tutorial

first_imgModular programming enables one to organize code into independent, cohesive modules, which can be combined to achieve the desired functionality. This article is an excerpt from a book written by Nick Samoylov and Mohamed Sanaulla titled Java 11 Cookbook – Second Edition. In this book, you will learn how to implement object-oriented designs using classes and interfaces in Java 11. The complete code for the examples shown in this tutorial can be found on GitHub. You should be wondering what this modularity is all about, and how to create a modular application in Java. In this article, we will try to clear up the confusion around creating modular applications in Java by walking you through a simple example. Our goal is to show you how to create a modular application; hence, we picked a simple example so as to focus on our goal. Our example is a simple advanced calculator, which checks whether a number is prime, calculates the sum of prime numbers, checks whether a number is even, and calculates the sum of even and odd numbers. Getting ready We will divide our application into two modules: The math.util module, which contains the APIs for performing the mathematical calculations The calculator module, which launches an advanced calculator How to do it Let’s implement the APIs in the com.packt.math.MathUtil class, starting with the isPrime(Integer number) API: public static Boolean isPrime(Integer number){ if ( number == 1 ) { return false; } return IntStream.range(2,num).noneMatch(i -> num % i == 0 ); } Implement the sumOfFirstNPrimes(Integer count) API: public static Integer sumOfFirstNPrimes(Integer count){ return IntStream.iterate(1,i -> i+1) .filter(j -> isPrime(j)) .limit(count).sum(); } Let’s write a function to check whether the number is even: public static Boolean isEven(Integer number){ return number % 2 == 0; } The negation of isEven tells us whether the number is odd. We can have functions to find the sum of the first N even numbers and the first N odd numbers, as shown here: public static Integer sumOfFirstNEvens(Integer count){ return IntStream.iterate(1,i -> i+1) .filter(j -> isEven(j)) .limit(count).sum(); } public static Integer sumOfFirstNOdds(Integer count){ return IntStream.iterate(1,i -> i+1) .filter(j -> !isEven(j)) .limit(count).sum(); } We can see in the preceding APIs that the following operations are repeated: An infinite sequence of numbers starting from 1 Filtering the numbers based on some condition Limiting the stream of numbers to a given count Finding the sum of numbers thus obtained Based on our observation, we can refactor the preceding APIs and extract these operations into a method, as follows: Integer computeFirstNSum(Integer count, IntPredicate filter){ return IntStream.iterate(1,i -> i+1) .filter(filter) .limit(count).sum(); } Here, count is the limit of numbers we need to find the sum of, and filter is the condition for picking the numbers for summing. Let’s rewrite the APIs based on the refactoring we just did: public static Integer sumOfFirstNPrimes(Integer count){ return computeFirstNSum(count, (i -> isPrime(i)));} public static Integer sumOfFirstNEvens(Integer count){ return computeFirstNSum(count, (i -> isEven(i))); }public static Integer sumOfFirstNOdds(Integer count){ return computeFirstNSum(count, (i -> !isEven(i))); So far, we have seen a few APIs around mathematical computations. These APIs are part of our com.packt.math.MathUtil class. The complete code for this class can be found at Chapter03/2_simple-modular-math-util/math.util/com/packt/math, in the codebase downloaded for this book. Let’s make this small utility class part of a module named math.util. The following are some conventions we use to create a module: Place all the code related to the module under a directory named math.util and treat this as our module root directory. In the root folder, insert a file named module-info.java. Place the packages and the code files under the root directory. What does module-info.java contain? The following: The name of the module The packages it exports, that is, the one it makes available for other modules to use The modules it depends on The services it uses The service for which it provides implementation Our math.util module doesn’t depend on any other module (except, of course, the java.base module). However, it makes its API available for other modules (if not, then this module’s existence is questionable). Let’s go ahead and put this statement into code: module math.util{ exports com.packt.math;} We are telling the Java compiler and runtime that our math.util module is exporting the code in the com.packt.math package to any module that depends on math.util. The code for this module can be found at Chapter03/2_simple-modular-math-util/math.util. Now, let’s create another module calculator that uses the math.util module. This module has a Calculator class whose work is to accept the user’s choice for which mathematical operation to execute and then the input required to execute the operation. The user can choose from five available mathematical operations: Prime number check Even number check Sum of N primes Sum of N evens Sum of N odds Let’s see this in code: private static Integer acceptChoice(Scanner reader){ System.out.println(“************Advanced Calculator************”); System.out.println(“1. Prime Number check”); System.out.println(“2. Even Number check”); System.out.println(“3. Sum of N Primes”); System.out.println(“4. Sum of N Evens”); System.out.println(“5. Sum of N Odds”); System.out.println(“6. Exit”); System.out.println(“Enter the number to choose operation”); return reader.nextInt();} Then, for each of the choices, we accept the required input and invoke the corresponding MathUtil API, as follows: switch(choice){ case 1: System.out.println(“Enter the number”); Integer number = reader.nextInt(); if (MathUtil.isPrime(number)){ System.out.println(“The number ” + number +” is prime”); }else{ System.out.println(“The number ” + number +” is not prime”); } break; case 2: System.out.println(“Enter the number”); Integer number = reader.nextInt(); if (MathUtil.isEven(number)){ System.out.println(“The number ” + number +” is even”); } break; case 3: System.out.println(“How many primes?”); Integer count = reader.nextInt(); System.out.println(String.format(“Sum of %d primes is %d”, count, MathUtil.sumOfFirstNPrimes(count))); break; case 4: System.out.println(“How many evens?”); Integer count = reader.nextInt(); System.out.println(String.format(“Sum of %d evens is %d”, count, MathUtil.sumOfFirstNEvens(count))); break; case 5: System.out.println(“How many odds?”); Integer count = reader.nextInt(); System.out.println(String.format(“Sum of %d odds is %d”, count, MathUtil.sumOfFirstNOdds(count))); break;} The complete code for the Calculator class can be found at Chapter03/2_simple-modular-math-util/calculator/com/packt/calculator/Calculator.java. Let’s create the module definition for our calculator module in the same way we created it for the math.util module: module calculator{ requires math.util;} In the preceding module definition, we mentioned that the calculator module depends on the math.util module by using the required keyword. The code for this module can be found at Chapter03/2_simple-modular-math-util/calculator. Let’s compile the code: javac -d mods –module-source-path . $(find . -name “*.java”) The preceding command has to be executed from Chapter03/2_simple-modular-math-util. Also, you should have the compiled code from across both the modules, math.util and calculator, in the mods directory. Just a single command and everything including the dependency between the modules is taken care of by the compiler. We didn’t require build tools such as ant to manage the compilation of modules. The –module-source-path command is the new command-line option for javac, specifying the location of our module source code. Let’s execute the preceding code: java –module-path mods -m calculator/com.packt.calculator.Calculator The –module-path command, similar to –classpath, is the new command-line option java, specifying the location of the compiled modules. After running the preceding command, you will see the calculator in action: Congratulations! With this, we have a simple modular application up and running. We have provided scripts to test out the code on both Windows and Linux platforms. Please use run.bat for Windows and run.sh for Linux. How it works Now that you have been through the example, we will look at how to generalize it so that we can apply the same pattern in all our modules. We followed a particular convention to create the modules: |application_root_directory|–module1_root|—-module-info.java|—-com|——packt|——–sample|———-MyClass.java|–module2_root|—-module-info.java|—-com|——packt|——–test|———-MyAnotherClass.java We place the module-specific code within its folders with a corresponding module-info.java file at the root of the folder. This way, the code is organized well. Let’s look into what module-info.java can contain. From the Java language specification (http://cr.openjdk.java.net/~mr/jigsaw/spec/lang-vm.html), a module declaration is of the following form: {Annotation} [open] module ModuleName { {ModuleStatement} } Here’s the syntax, explained: {Annotation}: This is any annotation of the form @Annotation(2). open: This keyword is optional. An open module makes all its components accessible at runtime via reflection. However, at compile-time and runtime, only those components that are explicitly exported are accessible. module: This is the keyword used to declare a module. ModuleName: This is the name of the module that is a valid Java identifier with a permissible dot (.) between the identifier names—similar to math.util. {ModuleStatement}: This is a collection of the permissible statements within a module definition. Let’s expand this next. A module statement is of the following form: ModuleStatement: requires {RequiresModifier} ModuleName ; exports PackageName [to ModuleName {, ModuleName}] ; opens PackageName [to ModuleName {, ModuleName}] ; uses TypeName ; provides TypeName with TypeName {, TypeName} ; The module statement is decoded here: requires: This is used to declare a dependency on a module. {RequiresModifier} can be transitive, static, or both. Transitive means that any module that depends on the given module also implicitly depends on the module that is required by the given module transitively. Static means that the module dependence is mandatory at compile time, but optional at runtime. Some examples are requires math.util, requires transitive math.util, and requires static math.util. exports: This is used to make the given packages accessible to the dependent modules. Optionally, we can force the package’s accessibility to specific modules by specifying the module name, such as exports com.package.math to claculator. opens: This is used to open a specific package. We saw earlier that we can open a module by specifying the open keyword with the module declaration. But this can be less restrictive. So, to make it more restrictive, we can open a specific package for reflective access at runtime by using the opens keyword—opens com.packt.math. uses: This is used to declare a dependency on a service interface that is accessible via java.util.ServiceLoader. The service interface can be in the current module or in any module that the current module depends on. provides: This is used to declare a service interface and provide it with at least one implementation. The service interface can be declared in the current module or in any other dependent module. However, the service implementation must be provided in the same module; otherwise, a compile-time error will occur. We will look at the uses and provides clauses in more detail in the Using services to create loose coupling between the consumer and provider modules recipe. The module source of all modules can be compiled at once using the –module-source-path command-line option. This way, all the modules will be compiled and placed in their corresponding directories under the directory provided by the -d option. For example, javac -d mods –module-source-path . $(find . -name “*.java”) compiles the code in the current directory into a mods directory. Running the code is equally simple. We specify the path where all our modules are compiled into using the command-line option –module-path. Then, we mention the module name along with the fully qualified main class name using the command-line option -m, for example, java –module-path mods -m calculator/com.packt.calculator.Calculator. In this tutorial, we learned to create a simple modular Java application. To learn more Java 11 recipes, check out the book Java 11 Cookbook – Second Edition. Read next Brian Goetz on Java futures at FOSDEM 2019 7 things Java programmers need to watch for in 2019 Clojure 1.10 released with Prepl, improved error reporting and Java compatibilitylast_img read more

Princess Cruises 2020 Europe program goes on sale Nov 8

first_img Share Travelweek Group Monday, November 5, 2018 Princess Cruises’ 2020 Europe program goes on sale Nov. 8 Tags: New Ship, Princess Cruisescenter_img Posted by SANTA CLARITA — Princess Cruises’ 2020 Europe season will be an exciting one indeed, with a brand new ship and a full lineup of voyages offered from March through November.In total, five ships will offer 67 itineraries ranging from four to 33 days to 120 European destinations in 37 countries. The season will also see the debut of the cruise line’s newest ship, Enchanted Princess, in the Mediterranean. Cruises go on sale on Nov. 8, 2018.As the fifth Royal-class ship in the line’s fleet, the Enchanted Princess will be named in the U.K. and debut in Rome on July 11, 2020. It will sail a variety of cruises ranging from seven to 22 days from Rome, Athens and Barcelona.“Our 2020 Europe lineup is epic with the debut of Enchanted Princess in the Mediterranean,” said Jan Swartz, Princess Cruises president. “Some of my fondest travel memories are from my many cruises throughout Europe. I always see something new, learn from the locals and of course, delight in the regional cuisines. We have so many cruise options to enjoy the rich history and diverse cultures whether it’s your first visit to Europe or your return.”More news:  CIE Tours launches first-ever River Cruise CollectionThe 2020 Europe program also marks the return to the Holy Land with visits to Jerusalem, Galilee and more. Island Princess will join the Europe fleet with voyages in the Mediterranean and North Europe, including two opportunities to view the Northern Lights in the late fall. Plus, Crown Princess will also sail Norway, Iceland and Greenland.Northern Europe highlights will include a pair of debuts: Sky Princess will sail its first season on the 11-day ‘Scandinavia & Russia’ itinerary from Copenhagen, while Regal Princess will be all new to the popular 12-day ‘British Isles from Southampton’.In total, three Royal-class ships will sail Europe in 2020.Moreover, several Mediterranean and Northern Europe cruises can be combined with a multi-night land tour to create a cruise tour with options to explore classic Italy, imperial Europe, the best of Spain and Ireland’s Ring of Kerry.Princess Pass Guests are eligible for a special promotion when they book early: US$100-$200/person discount off the public fare, based on itinerary. This can be combined with launch and group promotions (does not apply to third or fourth berth guests). Additionally, a reduced deposit is available for Captain Circle guests when booking early. << Previous PostNext Post >>last_img read more

Soumya Sriraman BritBox the forthcoming US subscr

first_imgSoumya SriramanBritBox, the forthcoming US subscription VOD service from BBC Worldwide and ITV, has appointed Soumya Sriraman as president, North America.Sriraman, who was most recently executive vice-president of franchise and digital enterprises at BBC Worldwide North America, takes up her new role effective immediately.She will be responsible for the overall strategy and operation of BritBox, which is due to launch later this quarter, and will focus on bringing “the best British content to the service” through acquisitions, licensing, co-productions, and partnerships.“Soumya has an outstanding historical knowledge and familiarity with British content. This, coupled with her creativity and excellent business acumen makes her the ideal executive to fill this role,” said Ann Sarnoff, president, BBC Worldwide North America.”“I am confident that Soumya is going to make this service a success, as she has done in all her endeavors for the last five years at BBC Worldwide North America.”Sriraman brings more than 20 years of entertainment experience to the role. Prior to working at the BBC’s commercial arm she was CEO of Anglo-American film distribution company, Palisades Tartan. She has also held senior executive positions at Universal, Warner, and Vivendi.Simon Pitts, ITV managing director of online, pay TV and interactive said: “BritBox is a very exciting development for fans of British TV and a natural next step in ITV’s growth as a global production and distribution business. I’m delighted that we have someone with Soumya’s knowledge, experience, and passion for British content spearheading the service as we prepare for the US launch.”BBC Worldwide and ITV announced their BritBox venture in December. The commercial arm of the UK public caster, and UK commercial broadcaster ITV will share a majority stake in the new venture, which they plan to roll out to other international markets after the US.BBC Worldwide North America is the main commercial arm of the BBC operating in the US and Canada. It also owns a 50.1% share in cable channel BBC America through a joint venture with AMC Networks.last_img read more